Note: There are two case studies , One Adina’s and Steve,, Work need to done on Adina’s case study.
Steve’s Case Study and Concept map given is an example ( will give you best idea -how to make concept map )
· In your concept map you must:
1) Interpret the patient’s risk factors (from the case-study scenario) and determine how these risk factors may lead to cell pathology (based on the patient’s diagnosis);
2) Explain the links between cellular pathology and the pathophysiology of the diagnosed disease;
3) Describe how the pathophysiology of the disease accounts for the patient’s clinical manifestations (described in the case-study scenario); and
4) Analyze and interpret evidence based research to suggest appropriate diagnostic assessments and treatment modalities for the patient’s diagnosis.
· In your 500 word written explanation you must:
1) Explain the links between the risk factors and aetiology to account for the disease’s pathophysiology.
2) Describe how the disease’s pathophysiology manifests through the patient’s signs and symptoms.
2804NRS Human Pathophysiology and Pharmacology 1:
Students choose between: 1) Individual, written concept map; or 2) Individual, podcast/ video mini-lecture
Weighting: 30% Learning Outcomes Assessed: 1, 2, 4 & 5 Length: 1) 1 PowerPoint slide + 500 word written explanation. 2) Video/podcast tutorial: 7-10mins Rationale and purpose of assessment:
The rationale for this case-based assignment is to allow you to demonstrate your clinical reasoning skills developed in the course thus far, demonstrating your capacity to differentiate normal from abnormal and to identify appropriate (evidence based) investigations and treatment modalities associated with the assigned case-study. The purpose of this assessment is for you to determine how the risk factors and mechanisms of cell injury/adaptation/repair relate to the diagnosis within an assigned case-study scenario from one of the studied systems (nervous, immune or musculoskeletal). You will also apply your understanding of the pathophysiology for the diagnosed disease with its clinical manifestations, and identify appropriate (evidence based) diagnostic tests/physical assessments, and treatment modalities for this case; skills which are necessary in everyday practice.
Choice 1: Individual, Written Assignment, concept map Total Marks: 30 Weighting: 30%
Length: 1 PowerPoint slide + 500 word explanation
For this task you need to create a single (1) slide (using PowerPoint) concept map and 500 word explanation, demonstrating analysis of the case study emailed to you in week 1. A PowerPoint template file will be made available for you to customised based on your assigned case scenario.
In your concept map you must:
1) Interpret the patient’s risk factors (from the case-study scenario) and determine how these risk factors may lead to cell pathology (based on the patient’s diagnosis); 2) Explain the links between cellular pathology and the pathophysiology of the diagnosed disease; 3) Describe how the pathophysiology of the disease accounts for the patient’s clinical manifestations (described in the case-study scenario); and 4) Analyse and interpret evidence based research to suggest appropriate diagnostic assessments and treatment modalities for the patient’s diagnosis.
In your 500 word written explanation you must: 1) Explain the links between the risk factors and aetiology to account for the disease’s
pathophysiology. 2) Describe how the disease’s pathophysiology manifests through the patient’s signs and
Submission via Turnitin within the course Learning@Griffith site by Tuesday week 7, 18th April 2017, 5pm.
The concept map should be a maximum of 1 PowerPoint slide in length and 1 page (500 words) written explanation (excluding reference list);
You will be presented with a case study electronically (via email) by Friday 3rd March (week 1); Use APA 6th edition for in-text referencing and in the reference list; Reference list should be on a separate slide following the concept map; Ensure that your references have been published within the last 10 years; Marking, moderation, and student feedback will be provided electronically based on the marking
rubric, which is in accordance with University assessment policy; 10% late penalties apply for each working day after submission date; Always refer to the marking rubric as this will assist you to determine the depth of response for each
section; An exemplar concept map will be created in the week 1 tutorials.
Refer to the Health Writing and Referencing guide for more information (click here)
Marking Rubric*: Assessment Task 2 – Individual, Written Assignment. Good (11. 5+) Satisfactory (7.5 – 11. 4) Unsatisfactory (0-7.4)
Presentation, written communication
Concept map and written explanation has a logical structure, and is concise and focused. No spelling or grammatical errors. Concept map is
colour coded with a respective key. Separate page/s for references.
Concept map and written explanation was generally well-structured. Some minor spelling or grammatical errors.
Many spelling or grammatical errors. Poor structure.
Excellent (16+) Good (13 – 15.9) Satisfactory (10– 12.9) Unsatisfactory (0-9.9) Identify and explain the underlying cellular mechanisms that contribute to patient’s disease. Identification and explanation includes: 1. Risk factors in case study 2. Aetiology of cellular injury 3. Patient’s risk factors linked to cell
injury (20 marks)
Detailed description of the cellular pathology. Extensive knowledge of the 3 descriptive factors as evidence by their connections within the concept map and written explanation The link between cellular pathology and disease is analysed thoroughly.
Broad description of the cellular pathology. Sound knowledge of the 3 descriptive factors as evidence by their connections within the concept map and written explanation. The link between cellular pathology and disease is clear but lacks depth.
Limited description of the cellular pathology. Superficial knowledge of the 3 descriptive factors as evidence by their connections within the concept map and written explanation. The link between cellular pathology and disease is made but it is mainly descriptive.
Little information given about the type of cellular injury No description of how risk factors lead to cell injury. Link between cellular pathology and disease state is confused and/or absent.
Excellent (40+) Good (32.5-39.9) Satisfactory (25-32.4) Unsatisfactory (0-24.9)
Analysis of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of the assigned disease. Analysis includes: 1. How the pathophysiology causes
the patient’s clinical manifestations (in the case study).
2. Evidence based research to suggest the appropriate diagnostic assessments and where they link to the disease state.
3. Evidence based research to suggest the appropriate treatment modalities and where they link to the disease state. (50 marks)
Detailed analysis of the pathophysiological cause for the patient’s clinical manifestations (S&S). Diagnostic assessment tests and treatment modalities for patient’s disease listed/linked, and broadly substantiated with current literature. Link between patient’s disease pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment is extensively addressed.
Some analysis of the pathophysiological cause for the patient’s clinical manifestations (S&S). Diagnostic assessments and treatment modalities for patient’s disease listed, and superficially substantiated with current literature. Link between patient’s disease pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment is addressed.
Little analysis of the pathophysiological cause for the patient’s clinical manifestations (S&S). Diagnostic assessments and treatment modalities for patient’s disease listed, but not substantiated with literature and/or literature outdated. Link between patient’s disease pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment minimally addressed.
No analysis given about pathophysiological cause for the patient’s clinical manifestations (S&S). Explanation of diagnostic assessments and treatment modalities for patient’s disease inconsistent/incorrect. Link between patient’s disease pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment is confused and/or absent.
Excellent (12+) Good (9.75 –11.9) Satisfactory (7.5– 9.74) Unsatisfactory (0-7.4) Use of references
Written explanation includes many appropriate and current references, and APA guide is followed throughout (in-text and in reference list). No fewer than 10 sources used.
Written explanation supported by some references. References are generally appropriate and up to date. APA guide is generally followed. Less than 10 sources used.
Limited references used and/or may have occasional inappropriate or outdated references that do not follow APA 6th edition guide.
No references to the literature or many errors in the references used.
Case study scenario:
Adina, a 43-year-old woman comes in for her first visit at your clinic. She is a Kunjen woman from Kowanyam, in far north Queensland. Her past medical history is notable for long-standing asthma. She takes budesonide (inhalation) most days and prednisolone (orally) for severe exacerbations; this has been the case for much of her adult life. She is married with six children; her husband is an interstate truck driver. Her first sexual contact was at age 14, and she has had six sexual partners in her lifetime, but took the pill to prevent pregnancy. She has been smoking one pack of cigarettes per day for the last 30 years. She reports vaginal bleeding, particularly after intercourse which has become painful; she thinks is related to vaginal dryness after menopause. Adina, also reports of fatigue, weight loss and pelvic pain over the past 2-3 months.
Adina is subsequently diagnosed with cervical cancer and is positive for human papilloma virus.
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world, particularly in developing countries.
Aetiology: Cervical cancer is strongly linked to 2 viruses: Herpes simplex 2 (HSV2) and human papillomavirus (HPV). Other risk factors include: multiple sexual partners, age (35-65) and smoking.
Pathophysiology: Early stages consists of dysplasia (starts mild), which occurs at the junction of columnar cells with squamous cells at the external os. The majority of cervical cancers arise from squamous cells. A pap smear test will reveal the signs of dysplasis before cancer has manifested. Invasive carcinomas appear as a protruding nodular mass or ulceration. As the carcinoma spreads into neighbouring tissues (including uterus and vagina), it may reach the connective tissue, bladder and rectum. Metastases to lymph or blood occurs rarely at late stages.
Clinical manifestations: Cervical cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages (but can be detected by a pap smear). Invasive cervical cancer may manifest as abnormal vaginal bleeding and discharge, as well as dyspareunia (painful intercourse) and postcoital bleeding.
Diagnosis: A clinical history, physical pelvic examination and pap smear can diagnose cervical cancer, along with a cervical biopsy. Pelvic CT or MRI may be used to assess the extent of spread.
Management: Management depends on the grading of the dysplastic changes. A loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) may be perform to diagnose and treat lesions. Surgery combined with radiation is the recommended treatment. Surgery ranges from: cryosurgery to hysterectomy. Radiation therapy may be external or internal (implants) depending on the invasiveness of the cancer. Prevention of cervical cancer can be achieved through HPV vaccination for girls before they become sexually active.
This morning, Steve McManus a 40-year-old male, while having breakfast got severe chest pain and collapsed. His wife called an ambulance and he was taken to GCUH. His wife states that he woke up this morning feeling ill and vomited a few times. She tells you he has high blood pressure, but controls it with medication. We have fallen behind on our mortgage re-payments, so he has been working two jobs.
Steve has had acute myocardial infarct due to a Thrombosis in his arterial bed.
Insert Page Number – Upper right corner in page ‘header’
Name: Sarah Smith
Essay Title: The Impact of Positive Predispositions on Quality of Life
Word Count: 1570 (excluding title page and reference list)
Student number in centre of the page footer
Student Name, Title of Essay, and Word Count on Title Page
Regardless of who we are or where we come from, few situations in life are as stressful as living with a chronic, physical illness (Fitzgerald Miller, 2000). Chronic illness (CI), defined as an altered health state not curable through surgical or medical or procedures, often involves “long-term, impaired functioning and multiple illness-related demands on an individual that are never completely eliminated” (Fitzgerald Miller, 2000, p. 4). In Australia, the prevalence of CI has increased over the last decade, with as much as 15% of the population currently living with illnesses such as circulatory conditions (e.g. heart attack, stroke, angina and hypertension), cancer, arthritis, osteoporosis, asthma, and diabetes (Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], 2009). In addition to an increase in their prevalence, many of these chronic problems are now occurring at younger ages than ever before (Keyes, 2007). With increasing numbers of people getting sick at younger ages, the onus is on the health professions to investigate new ways to assist those living with chronic physical illness to live healthier and happier lives; to find ways to help them ‘flourish’ amid adversity.
Indent (by 1 tab space) the first line of each new paragraph
Page number included in citation for direct quote
Double quotation marks for direct quote
Double-spaced, Times New Roman 12 point font
Inclusion of abbreviation in the first citation
Research suggests that the ways in which individuals cope with illness have a direct effect on their future physical and psychological health and quality of life (Fitzgerald Miller, 2000). In the past, traditional treatment options available to people living with a CI (e.g. pharmacological therapy, physical rehabilitation, surgical treatment, psychological pain management programs, interventions to reduce fear, anger, depression and anxiety, and illness education programs) have focused on addressing the negative symptoms of the illness. Even the most comprehensive multidisciplinary treatment programs, aimed at both the physiological and psychological aspects of the illness, have mainly focused on treating the illness itself or helping individuals alter the way they think about or cope with the illness (Fitzgerald Miller, 2000; Newman, Steed, & Mulligan, 2004; Turk & Akiko, 2002). This past ‘illness ideology’ has dictated, therefore, that health professionals concentrate on disorder, dysfunction, and disease rather than on health, strength, and wellbeing, thereby neglecting the consideration of the potential benefits that may be gained (by illness sufferers) from emphasising positive aspects of daily life (Maddux, 2008). In healthcare settings therefore, the approach to treatment has tended to be one-dimensional, focused mainly on treating the symptoms and negative outcomes associated with physical illness. This approach, although necessary, has two limitations:
(i) working towards reducing negative factors associated with illness does not ensure that positive ones will be enhanced; and (ii) working to increase positive characteristics and behaviours may simultaneously reduce at least some of the negative aspects of illness that are the targets of treatment (Harris & Thoresen, 2006). Wood and Tarrier (2010) suggest that, focusing on the positive can: (i) enhance the prediction and understanding of clinical conditions; (ii) buffer the impact of negative events (such as living with illness); and (iii) be used to develop treatment options to enhance health and wellbeing. Further examination of the impact of positivity, especially among clinical illness populations, is therefore indicated. The research reported in this thesis aimed to achieve this by investigating the efficacy of newly emerging, positive-focused approaches to patient care and treatment, with a specific emphasis on evaluating their impact on the relationship between illness and quality of life (QoL) among Australians living with chronic physical illness.
Alphabetical ordering of different citations in brackets
Do not justify the right side of your text
The following section provides a snapshot of chronic illness within an Australian context, with a focus on three specific illness types which are highly prevalent in society at present. This is followed by a more detailed discussion of how living with chronic illness is associated with not only physiological health, but daily mood and QoL.
Use “&” when citing more than one author in brackets
Use word ‘and’ when citing more than one author in text
First reference to abbreviation in the text
The management of chronic illness in Australia exerts a high financial burden on the national economy, with data showing that in 2004-2005, total expenditure on chronic disease management accounted for $25.5 billion (equivalent to approximately half of the funds allocated to health care for that year) (ABS, 2009). Of the many long-term medical conditions faced by Australians every day, three chronic conditions that are highly prevalent are Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), diabetes mellitus (Type 1 and 2), and arthritis-related conditions (rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis in particular), with both COPD and diabetes ranked among the 10 leading causes of death in Australia (ABS, 2009).
Specific prevalence and national health expenditure data for the three illness types, sourced from the ABS data (2009), are detailed in Table 1. As the following discussion illustrates, each of these illness types has a unique profile in relation to physiological impact, symptom severity, risk factors, age of onset, treatability/reversibility, and mortality risk. Living with these different types of illness also has differential influences on affective state and QoL, as is also evidenced in the sections to come. Due to their high prevalence, economic impact, and diverse physical and psychosocial profiles, these three chronic illnesses were chosen for study in the current research.
Use of abbreviation in subsequent citations
Use of ‘serial’ comma
No additional spaces between paragraphs
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a respiratory illness characterised by airway inflammation and limitation that results in increasing shortness of breath and oxygen desaturation. It involves an overlap of symptoms related to asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, and is a degenerative, disabling condition involving a
Use of et al. in repeat citation with 3 or more authors
Subsequent use of abbreviation in the text
First reference to abbreviation in the text
high level of distress, with sufferers often left ‘gasping for air’ (McKenzie, Frith, Burdon, & Town, 2003). Epidemiological studies (McKenzie et al., 2003; Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Lee, & Podsakoff, 2003) show that COPD is an issue that has long-lasting impact on many populations around the world. Newman et al. (2004) also report that …….
Use of serial comma
Use the heading References here –centred on top line and NOT in bold
Reference list starts on a new page and is listed alphabetically by first author
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009). Causes of death (Report No. 3303.0). Retrieved from http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/subscriber.nsf/0/83A6580246688CEBCA2578840012A073/$File/33030_2009.pdf
Fitzgerald Miller, J. (2000). Coping with chronic illness: Overcoming powerlessness (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
Books: Italicise book title (but not edition number if provided)
Harris, A. H. S., & Thoresen, C. E. (2006). Extending the influence of positive psychology interventions into health care settings: Lessons from self-efficacy and forgiveness. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1, 27 – 36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20264
Double spaced with hanging indent for each new reference
Keyes, C. L. M. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: A complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 62, 95-108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95
Sentence capitalisation for titles. Capitalise first word after colon (if used in title)
Maddux, J. E. (2008). Positive psychology and the illness ideology: Toward a positive clinical psychology. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57, 54-70. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-0597.2008.00354.x
McKenzie, D. K., Frith, P. A., Burdon, J. G. W., & Town, G. I. (2003). The COPD-X Plan: Australian and New Zealand guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2003. Medical Journal of Australia, 178, S1-S40.
Newman, S., Steed, L., & Mulligan, K. (2004). Self-management interventions for chronic illness. Lancet, 364, 1523-1537. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-673617277-2
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879-903. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879
Use of capital letters for proper nouns (e.g. country names) and abbreviations in titles
Ensure correct spacing and punctuation after author initials.
Turk, D. C., & Akiko, O. (2002). Psychological factors in chronic pain: Evolution and revolution. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 678-690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037//0022-006X.70.3.678
Wood, A. M., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive clinical psychology: A new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 819-829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.003
Journal articles: Italicise journal name and volume number
Assignment Presentation Formatting Guidelines
All undergraduate written essay and research report style assignments should be formatted using the following rules:
Margins: 2.54 left, right, top and bottom (this is the pre-set default margin setting).
Font Type: ‘Times New Roman’.
Font Size: 12 point font only with no larger fonts used for headings (if used).
Line Spacing: Double line spacing should be used throughout the assignment and on the reference list with no additional spaces between paragraph, assignment ‘sections’ or listed references. New paragraphs or sections are indicated by indenting of the first line of each new paragraph (see presentation format exemplar).
Indenting: Each new paragraph should be indented 5-7 spaces (or one Tab space).
Justification: No justification of text on right hand margin. Justify the left side of text in the body of essay/report except for indents required for the first lines of each new paragraph (see presentation format exemplar).
Page Numbers: Page numbers should be inserted in the upper right-hand side of the page header flush against the margin. Page numbers should start on the Title Page (starting at 1) and should be formatted with just the page number (see presentation format exemplar).
Assignment Title: Devise a suitably descriptive assignment title to include on the title page. Examples include: Managing Norovirus in Aged Care Facilities; Annotated Bibliography for Essay Question Four; Education Plan for the Long-Term Management of Type II Diabetes.
Footer: Your student number is to be inserted into the footer of the document (to assist with identification of lost pages if submission errors occur).
Griffith University Cover Page: Complete and include the official university cover page. Assignment template documents for both INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP assignments that have the university cover page already merged are available for download on the Griffith Health Writing & Referencing Guide website.
Title Page: Include a title page with the following information. See presentation format exemplar for example.
· Student Name:
· Essay/Report title:
· Word count: (excluding title page, reference list/bibliography and appendices)
Note : Your title page will also have a page number in the header (starting at ‘1’) and your student number in the footer (see presentation format exemplar).
Word Count: Word counts will comprise ALL text material contained in the body of the written assignment. This will include in-text citations, quotations, and any headings (if used). This will also include any information presented in tables or figures which are included WITHIN the body of the assignment.
Information included outside of the main body of the assignment (e.g. university coversheet, title page, reference list, preparation table) will NOT contribute to the word count.
Please Note: You must adhere to the stipulated word count for your assignment. Assignments which go over this stated limit will be penalised, with the marker ceasing to read your paper once the word count has been reached.
Headings: Headings are generally used more in research reports than in essays. The following rules should be followed to format headings if used.
Note: In general, if you are using headings in an essay, you will format them using ‘Level 2’ heading guidelines (see table below).
|Level of Heading||Format|
|1||Centred, Boldface, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading|
|2||Flush left, boldface, Upper and Lowercase Heading|
|3||Indented, boldface, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.|
|4||Indented, boldface, italicised, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.|
|5||Indented, italicised, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period.|
The above table has been adapted from the APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012).
Note : In general, if you are using headings in an essay, you will format them using Level 2 heading guidelines. Headings in a research report will be mainly formatted as Level 1, 2, and 3 headings, however all five levels of headings can be used in research reports (depending on the size of your report and the nature of information you need to discuss in particular sections).
When using Level 1 and 2 headings, your paragraph text will commence on the next line, indented by one tab space. When using Levels 3, 4 and 5, your paragraph text will commence two spaces after the full stop at the end of the heading (i.e. continuing on the same line as the heading). See the APA Annotated Exemplars (Essay and Research Report versions) in the ‘ APA Referencing Guidelines ’ section of the Griffith Health Writing and Referencing Guide website for examples of how to format different levels of headings and associated paragraph text.
Important Tip: When writing research reports, do not include the heading ‘Introduction’ at the start of your report. The heading at the start of your Introduction should be the title of the report that you have included on your title page. It should be formatted as a Level 1 heading (see table above).
Serial Comma: APA conventions require the use of a comma between elements in a series of three or more items. This is known as a ‘serial comma’. For example:
Examining height, width, and depth indicated that ……..
Use of numbers in assignment text:
· Numbers between zero and nine should be represented in words. For example:
· There were five experimental groups in the trial.
· Numbers ten and above should be represented in numerical format. For example:
· A total of 47 participants took part in the pilot test.