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This week, you will develop a PowerPoint presentation reviewing the theories from each module. 

Please select one theory from each module (1-8) and answer the following questions. You should have two slides per theory:

Describe the theory

Provide 3 examples of how the theory applies to current practice

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Provide 3 positive patient outcomes resulting from utilizing the theory

Explain 3 benefits to nursing satisfaction when utilizing the theory

Describe two barriers to using the theory in practice and at least one method for overcoming each barrier (support methods with sources)

Support from literature clearly noted throughout

The PowerPoint presentation should include at least two outside references and the textbook. The presentation should contain 2 to 4 slides per theory, for a total of 16 to 32 slides.

Total Point Value of Assignment: 500 points

Running head: THEORY 1


Using Nightingale’s Environmental Theory

Jadiam Lopez

Aspen University

Professor Anny Dionne



Using Nightingale’s Environmental Theory

Nightingale theory is a nursing theory which focuses on the accountability, autonomy, and communication associated with nursing practices. It proponent, Florence Nightingale, as conspicuous and celebrated among the nursing theorist whose teachings were based on the impact and influence that the environment has for the recovery of the patients (Smith & Parker 2015).  The theorist stressed that the nursing care goals are to ensure that a patient’s position is in excellent condition as much as possible to permit ecological condition to help towards good health promotion. Therefore, the theory pays more attention to the science and art of nursing intending to shape its practices. In theory, Florence maintained that external conditions and influences have a significant impact on the contribution and containment of illnesses and diseases. Florence’s mission through the theory has to help patients in retaining their vitality through environmental control approaches. The theory stated three primary environments: psychological, physical, and social, and holds that the contribution of each determines the quality of life that can be exhibited by a patient upon exposure (Rahim, 2013). Putting patients in natural conditions to get back to healthy lives does mean that the patient is left alone but instead supported by their ecological conditions that determine their possible recovery. In the theory of Nightingale about the environment, the amount of time by nature for a patient to heal and overcome all the partial conditions that affect his or her wellbeing based on the possible outcome.

Mrs. Adams Case Study

Mrs. Adams, who is a sixty-eight, and a widow who was subjected towards a case management when she was discharged from the hospital. As recommended by her physician, she portrays the role of nature in offering solutions to the patients. It was according to the diagnosis that the patient should be given while in or out of the facility. Hence, it is determined via possible recurrence to the disease or condition she is suffering from. Mrs. Adams’s diagnosis, which includes hypertension, breast cancer, and diabetes, require thorough consideration. Being a few days from the post-op right-sided mastectomy, she requires proper care and attention. However, her located that is characterized by low-income attributes where criminal cases are high put the intended care implementations into a standstill. Yet, from the Community Health Nurse assessment, it was realized that her apartment was in a severe mess and might prevent the free flow of fresh air and light. She had no food and seems that she has not even changed her clothes for quite a while. In the small apartment are a puppy and three cats considered by Mrs. Adams as part of her consolation since her beloved husband passed a year ago. Therefore it leads to her posing complaints of draining and severe pain after her broken air conditioner and the surgical site.

First Assessment: Evaluating the environmental conditions surrounding a patient is essential to limit the number of prevalence that they can be exposed to. According to Florence’s Nightingale theory, ecological surroundings play a crucial role in the healing process. Therefore, in Mrs. Adams’s case, her environmental surroundings need to be evaluated at first glance. Her various care concerns need to be prioritized based on the initial assessments made. However, major ecological components such as bed and beddings, nutrition, cleanliness, light, noise, the condition of the house, ventilation, and warming are considered. As indicated, Mrs. Adams complains about the minimal airflow, and the non-functioning air conditioner needs to be adjusted and properly rectified. Due to high crime cases within Mrs. Adams’ neighborhood, keeping windows and doors locked will serve as the best safety measures. Additionally, due to a reduced amount of light in the area, Mrs. Adams’ house requires proper ventilation, sound lighting system, and temperature-controlled air to fasten the healing process of her post-surgical wounds. Notably, the three pets in her room expose the house to increased infection and more bacteria.

The most important risk factors that threaten Mrs. Adams’s social wellbeing are the residence disarrays and her dirty clothes (Aspen University, 2018). Lack of quality and adequate food items and the residence disarrays shows that she lives in isolation with a minimal support network. Her condition and health starts are the major setbacks for her efforts in maintaining hygiene to a required level. Therefore, to make the cleaning effect, it should include frequent airing and changing her bedsheets and linens. According to Nightingale, most patients usually deposit wild floras on their beds if they are not adjusted for a long time (Wayne, 2014). Hence, this shows a possible infection if the patient re-enters in them, thus more infections.

Additionally, Mrs. Adams also requires daily hygiene support to make her safe for any possible further infections. Unwashed skin, according to Nightingale, blocks the air pots leading to possible poisoning of the body. Moreover, Mrs. Adams’ nurse should take immediate interventions to help her get her family members.

Five Essential Components of from the Theory

The five vital constituents advocated for by Nightingale to guarantee proper sanitation of various abodes for the improvement of health outcomes include:

Pure Water: The patient needs to avoid impure water because they contributed to diseases.

Pure Fresh Air: Ensuring fresh air in a location boosts the breathing systems of the patients.

Cleanliness: At all times, cleaning is necessary for all patients. Nurses must ensure that the environment is clean to minimize contaminations and poisoning.

Light: According to Wayne (2014), an adequate lighting system is needed in treating diseases, especially direct sunlight.

Effective Drainage: Proper drainage systems are needed to ward off ill-health causing organisms and epidemic diseases due to contamination by home sewer systems

Care Plan

The care plan for the case study will capture the following:

Nursing Diagnosis: Acute and severe pain evident in the verbal complaint made by Mrs. Adams about the new surgical procedure will be handled with proper pain medication.

Impaired physical mobility associated with damage of nerves and muscle, lymphedema as well as severe pains are seen in Mrs. Adams will be addressed with proper assistance.

Infection risks related to the wound that Mrs. Adam had after the surgery, her environment, and medical history will be addressed to ease the tension of possible infections.

Objective Information: The patient is a sixty-year-old female widow who has breast cancer, hypertension, and diabetes. The patient has blood-tinged fluids of serious oozing from her surgical site. The residence is poorly ventilated. There are three pets in a small room—no food for observation of nutritional support. Mrs. Adams appears untidy.

Subjective Information: There is a complaint from the patient about severe pains and broken air conditioner and pain. The reports from the patient show that she has no assistance because she is a widow.

Nursing Results: Mr. Adams Goals: The residence will have proper ventilation and adequately cleaned. All the bed linens will regularly and frequently change like daily bathing. The patient will utter two ways to limit any physical injuries that might be realized within the week. The patient will exercise mobility and sitting posture strength during this time. There will be daily hygiene performance by the patient to minimize the risk of infections. The nutritional status of the patient will be improved.

Nursing Interventions: The nurse responsible for the patient will ensure that the patient seeks out at least two friends that she has to help in support during her healing process. Additionally, the nurse in her daily services will ensure that she is ready to obtain her goals through increase strength, improved residence cleanliness, developed ambulation, and proper body hygiene. Implementation of in-house rehabilitation may be needed to make the efforts satisfying. Moreover, the nurse will ensure that the patient has a paramount focus in her care plan. Any option that might be available may be used to improve, however, current status. All possible risk factors will be addressed based on the effect on the patient.


The patient-centered approach, Nightingale’s Environmental Theory in medical care, contains several environmental aspects. It holds that environmental systems play a significant role in checking for the wellbeing of a patient. A balance in the ecological factors reveals the healing process that can be seen from the health conditions of a patient. However, Nightingale believed that it is the responsibility of nurses to ensure that a patient’s environment is safe and in good condition. They must also ensure that all the needed factors to boost the healing process are in place for all patients within their localities.


Aspen University (2018). Concepts and Theories in Nursing. Module 1. Assignment 1. Retrieved from https://aspenuniversity.edu/conceptsandtheoriesinnursing /assignment1/

Rahim, Shirin (2013). Clinical application of Nightingale’s environmental theory. i-manager’s Journal on Nursing, 3(1), 43-46, February/April 2013

Smith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice. FA Davis.  

Wayne, Gil (2014). Florence Nightingale’s Environmental Theory. Nurselabs.com. Retrieved from https://nurselabs.com/florence nightingale’s environmental theory

Running head:



Using Nightingale

s Environmental Theory

Jadiam Lopez









Running head: THEORY 1

Using Nightingale’s Environmental Theory

Jadiam Lopez

Aspen University

Professor Anny Dionne


Running Head: KING’S FRAMEWORK 1


King’s frameworkJadiam LopezAspen UniversityProfessor Anny DionneN49108/16/20IntroductionThe concept of the King’s Conceptual System Theory has considerably been referred to as the general systems framework, interacting systems framework, and the open systems model. The overall interpretation of the King’s Theory entails the concentration with regards to the individuals’ ability of continuity with regards to the achievement of their basic necessities to enhance their functioning with regards to their socially defined roles alongside the concept of interactions between individuals within the three, interacting, dynamic, and open systems. Therefore, the value attached to the King’s theory is the ability of guidance provision with regards to the nursing practice. This was developed with regards to the conceptual framework whereby the King established the goal attainment theory. Thus, the middle-range theory is established to enhance a concentration with regards to the interactional process, which is established as the fundamental nature of nursing, consequently enhancing guidance to individuals with regards to the concept of goal attainment subject to their health (Fitzpatrick & Meredith Kazer, 2011).This theory was established in early 1960s by Imogene King. The King’s System basically provides a description with subject to the interpersonal and dynamic relationships with regards to the patient’s growth and development subject to the attainment of specified life goals. The King’s theory provides an explanation with regards to the factors affecting the attainment of life goals as being the concept of time, stress, roles, and space. This particular theory regarding goal attainment provides a nursing description as the process of action that entails the reaction and interaction that involves the sharing of information between the nurse and the patient regarding their perception subject to a nursing situation. The nursing concept has also been defined as a process that entails the concept of human interactions involving the nurse and the patient with regards to their perception regarding both the situation and each other, setting goals, the exploration of means, and establishing the appropriate means to enhance the achievement of goals (Christina Leibold Sieloff; Ph.D.; CNA; BC & Frey, 2007).Goal achievementThe King’s model enhances the interaction of various systems established as the personal system, interpersonal systems, and the concept of the social system. Thus, all three established systems are described as having their own established set of concepts. The personal system is rested on the concepts of self, body image, time, space, perception, and growth and development. On the other hand, the concept of an interpersonal system is attributed to communication, interaction, stress, role, and transaction. Additionally, the social system concepts rest on the elements of authority, organization, decision-making, status, and power. The theory provides various factors with regards to the systems established that translate to influences that impact the aspect of goal attainment (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2010).The theory is attributed to various propositions with regards to goal attainment that include the fact that in a situation that enhances the presence of perpetual interaction accuracy with regards to interactions between the nurse and the patients would translate to the occurrence of interactions. In a situation where there is a transaction that occurs between the nurse and the patient, the goals end up being achieved. Thus, the achievement of goals enhances satisfaction, whereby the aspect of growth and development is enhanced with regards to the interactions having been conducted between the nurse and the patient. In the situation whereby the nurse and the patient’s perception of role performance and role expectations are established as being congruent, then this will consequently translate to the occurrence of a transaction. In the situation that establishes a role conflict with subject to both the nurse and the patient, it establishes the occurrence of nurse-patient interaction. In the situation whereby the nurse possesses special knowledge communication subject to particular information with regards to a patient, there will be a mutually enhanced goal-setting that will translate to the occurrence of goal achievement (Christina Leibold Sieloff; Ph.D.; CNA; BC & Frey, 2007).Basing on King’s assumptions, his theory establishes the human being as being a social being that is sentient and rational. The human being is established to possess the ability to perceive, feel, think, choose, make decisions, set goals, and select means for achieving goals. The human being is established to have three fundamental needs established as being the need for health-related information, the need for sickness prevention established by the need for care alongside the need for care in the situation where an individual isn’t capable of helping out themselves (Butts et al., 2013).Clinical quality problem definitionThe concept of King’s Conceptual System has considerably enhanced the definition of clinical quality problems basing on the fact that the nurse is obligated to understand that communication is established to be key with regards to the trust between the nurse and the patient is the most significant element. Clinical pathways have been established to serving the purpose with regards to nurses communicating their patient care goals and outcomes alongside working with one another. Therefore, nurses are mandated to enhance the advocacy for a common nursing language that would translate to unity among nurses globally. The application of King’s Conceptual System in our nursing career with regards to goal attainment has considerably elevated us with regards to having more power on the subject to our perception, growth and development, self, body image, time, and space (Butts et al., 2013).King’s Conceptual System applicationI would apply the King’s Conceptual System on a post-op patient that has been subjected to a cholecystectomy surgery. Being a nurse, I would ask questions that would be making a determination with regards to understanding whether the patient understands the risk factors associated with their condition alongside their understanding with regards to a post-op patient. Additionally, both the patient and I identified with regard to the problems relating to the lack of interest in ambulation subject to post-op exercises. Being a nurse, I provided education to the patient with regards to both the significance and the risk factors associated with the patient, not understanding the importance associated with ambulation after undergoing surgery, for instance, translating to more severe complications. After the education session, the patient and I set a goal that we established as the patient remained free from complications associated with post-op. Additionally, we selected agreed approaches and being a nurse, and I assisted the patient with regards to the performance of agreed appropriate actions after the surgery, which included an exercise that entailed deep breathing, ambulation, alongside adequate intake of both food and water that would enhance the provision of adequate nutrition. This translated to the overall outcome becoming the fact that the patient was free of complication, consequently being discharged (Fitzpatrick & Meredith Kazer, 2011).Quality committee outcomeThrough the application of King’s Conceptual System with regards to the research, there was resource limitation with regards to nursing informatics and project management. This necessitated the need for nursing informatics alongside a guidebook that entails project management with subject to combining these two concepts. Subject to the combination, various links regarding scholarly articles were also availed. Subject to the dissemination, there was evidence relating to the guidebook being received by 30 healthcare professionals on the basis of attendance, the implementation discussion, and an approach that enhanced feedback. In the future, the clinical-informatics subcommittee will enhance a program created with regards to discussing the learned lessons, which would enhance the guidebook becoming more specific with regards to my local hospital (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2010).Additional theoryThe concept of the theory developed by Florence Nightingale with regards to our readings is another theory that could align with the subject of improved quality of practice. The concepts of modern nursing are established as being multi-focused, ever-changing, and complex. Basing on the times associated with Florence Nightingale, nursing’s theory hasn’t changed, which entails the provision of a caring and safe environment that enhances the promotion of well-being and patient health. The aspect of the application of effective interpersonal skills, for instance, advocacy, has been established to enhance the concept of caregiving environment. Florence Nightingale is established to have employed the concept of advocacy with regard to the development of modern nursing. Being a nurse, it is easy to undertake the combination of the two theories with regards to enhancing quality patient care subject to the ultimate and most cost-effective patient outcome (Christina Leibold Sieloff; Ph.D.; CNA; BC & Frey, 2007).ConclusionThe overall interpretation of the King’s Theory entails the concentration with regards to the individuals’ ability of continuity with regards to the achievement of their basic necessities to enhance their functioning with regards to their socially defined roles alongside the concept of interactions between individuals within the three, interacting, dynamic, and open systems. The King’s Conceptual System has significantly enhanced both effectiveness and efficiency with subject to my nursing career (Christina Leibold Sieloff; Ph.D.; CNA; BC & Frey, 2007).ReferencesButts, J. B., Professor Emeritus University of Alabama Tuscaloosa Inez Rovegno, Bandhauer, D., Rich, K. L., Visiting Professor Visiting Professor at the University of Miami Florida Tomas B Garcia, & Professor the University of Southern Mississippi College of Nursing Hattiesburg Mississippi Janie B Butts. (2013). Philosophies and theories for advanced nursing practice. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.Christina Leibold Sieloff; Ph.D.; CNA; BC, & Frey, M. A. (2007). Middle range theory development using King’s conceptual system. Springer Publishing Company.Fitzpatrick, J. J., & Meredith, Kazer, A. (2011). Encyclopedia of nursing research (3rd ed.). Springer Publishing Company.Sitzman, K., & Eichelberger, L. W. (2010). Understanding the work of nurse theorists: A creative beginning. Jones & Bartlett LearningSmith, M. C., & Parker, M. E. (2015). Nursing theories and nursing practice (4th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis. Chapters 9 & 14Running Head:KING’SFRAMEWORK1King’sframeworkJadiam LopezAspen UniversityProfessor Anny DionneN49108/16/20Running Head: KING’S FRAMEWORK 1King’s frameworkJadiam LopezAspen UniversityProfessor Anny DionneN49108/16/20


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