human development stage 1

Table of Contents

human development
human development

1. Topic: Our textbook author described each human development stage in terms of physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development. Now take a moment to think about the life stages you have had experienced. Among these stages, which stage is of great significance to you? How has this stage influenced you in terms of physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development? Address these aspects thoroughly and provide your own examples.

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2. Format: APA style. Type your paper in Word document. Use #12 font size and double-spaced.

3. References: use at least 2 references in your paper (excluding the textbook).

4. Length: minimum 5 pages, maximum 10 pages.

5. Points: Final paper is worth 100 points toward your final course grade.

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Textbook Required: Santrock, J. (2020).

Essentials of Life-Span


(6th ed). ISBN: 978-1-260-05430-9, NY: McGraw-Hill


Page i

Essentials of Life-Span Development


John W. Santrock University of Texas at Dallas

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human development

Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright ©2020 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions ©2018, 2016, and 2014. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw- Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be available to customers outside the United States.

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

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ISBN 978-1-260-05430-9 (bound edition) MHID 1-260-05430-6 (bound edition) ISBN 978-1-260-52989-0 (loose-leaf edition) MHID 1-260-52989-4 (loose-leaf edition)

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

human development

Names: Santrock, John W., author. Title: Essentials of life-span development / John W. Santrock, University of  Texas at Dallas. Description: Sixth edition. | New York, NY : McGraw-Hill Education, [2020] |  Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2018035665| ISBN 9781260054309 (alk. paper) | ISBN  1260054306 (alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Developmental psychology. Classification: LCC BF713 .S256 2020 | DDC 155—dc23 LC record available at

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

human development

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Brief Contents 1  Introduction  1 2  Biological Beginnings  36 3  Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy  76

©Ariel Skelley/Getty Images

4  Socioemotional Development in Infancy  114 5  Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood  140 6  Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood  168 7  Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood

 197 8  Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood  226 9  Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence  255

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10  Socioemotional Development in Adolescence  282 11  Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  305 12  Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood  325 13  Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood  345

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14  Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood  363 15  Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood  378 16  Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood  408

17  Death, Dying, and Grieving  423

McGraw-Hill Education Psychology’s APA Documentation Style Guide

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©Boris Ryaposov/Shutterstock

1  Introduction  1

Stories of Life-Span Development: How Did Ted Kaczynski Become Ted Kaczynski and Alice Walker Become Alice Walker?  1 The Life-Span Perspective  2 The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development  2 Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective  3 Contemporary Concerns in Life-Span Development  6 Gustavo Medrano, Clinical Psychologist  7 The Nature of Development  11 Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes  11 Periods of Development  12 Conceptions of Age  13 Developmental Issues  15 Theories of Development  17 Psychoanalytic Theories  17

Cognitive Theories  19 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories  23 Ethological Theory  24 Ecological Theory  25 An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation  26 Research in Life-Span Development  27 Methods for Collecting Data  27 Research Designs  30 Time Span of Research  32 Conducting Ethical Research  34 Summary  35 Key Terms  35

2  Biological Beginnings  36

Stories of Life-Span Development: The Jim and Jim Twins  36 The Evolutionary Perspective  37 Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior  37 Evolutionary Psychology  38 Genetic Foundations of Development  40 Genes and Chromosomes  41 Genetic Principles  43 Chromosome and Gene-Linked Abnormalities  44 Jennifer Leonhard, Genetic Counselor  47 The Interaction of Heredity and Environment: The Nature- Nurture Debate  47 Behavior Genetics  47 Heredity-Environment Correlations  48 The Epigenetic View and Gene × Environment (G × E) Interaction  48

Conclusions About Heredity-Environment Interaction  50 Prenatal Development  51 The Course of Prenatal Development  51 Prenatal Tests  55 Infertility and Reproductive Technology  56 Hazards to Prenatal Development  57 Prenatal Care  64 Normal Prenatal Development  65 Birth and the Postpartum Period  65 The Birth Process  65 The Transition from Fetus to Newborn  69 Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants  69 Linda Pugh, Perinatal Nurse  70 Bonding  72 The Postpartum Period  73 Summary  74 Key Terms  75

3  Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy  76

Stories of Life-Span Development: Newborn Babies in Ghana and Nigeria  76 Physical Growth and Development in Infancy  77 Patterns of Growth  77 Height and Weight  78 The Brain  78 Sleep  82 Nutrition  83 Faize Mustafa-Infante, Pediatric Specialist Focusing on Childhood Obesity  85 Motor Development  86

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Dynamic Systems Theory  86 Reflexes  87 Gross Motor Skills  88 Fine Motor Skills  90 Sensory and Perceptual Development  91 Exploring Sensory and Perceptual Development  91 Visual Perception  93 Other Senses  95 Intermodal Perception  96 Nature, Nurture, and Perceptual Development  97 Perceptual Motor Coupling  98 Cognitive Development  98 Piaget’s Theory  98 Learning, Remembering, and Conceptualizing  102 Language Development  105 Defining Language  106 How Language Develops  106 Biological and Environmental Influences  109 An Interactionist View  112 Summary  112 Key Terms  113

©karelnoppe/Getty Images

4  Socioemotional Development in Infancy  114

Stories of Life-Span Development: Darius and His Father  114 Emotional and Personality Development  115 Emotional Development  115 Temperament  119 Personality Development  123 Social Orientation and Attachment  125 Social Orientation and Understanding  125 Attachment  127 Social Contexts  131 The Family  131 Child Care  135 Wanda Mitchell, Child-Care Director  137 Summary  139 Key Terms  139

5  Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood  140

Stories of Life-Span Development: Reggio Emilia’s Children  140 Physical Changes  141 Body Growth and Change  141 The Brain  142 Motor Development  142 Nutrition and Exercise  143 Illness and Death  146 Cognitive Changes  147 Piaget’s Preoperational Stage  147 Vygotsky’s Theory  150

Information Processing  153 Helen Hadani, Developmental Psychologist, Toy Designer, and Associate Director of Research for the Center for Childhood Creativity  157 Language Development  159 Understanding Phonology and Morphology  159 Changes in Syntax and Semantics  160 Advances in Pragmatics  161 Young Children’s Literacy  162 Early Childhood Education  162 Variations in Early Childhood Education  162 Education for Young Children Who Are Disadvantaged  164 Yolanda Garcia, Director of Children’s Services, Head Start  165 Controversies in Early Childhood Education  165 Summary  166 Key Terms  167

6  Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood  168

Stories of Life-Span Development: Nurturing Socioemotional Development  168 Emotional and Personality Development  169 The Self  169 Emotional Development  171 Moral Development  172 Gender  174 Families  177 Parenting  177 Darla Botkin, Marriage and Family Therapist  182

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Child Maltreatment  182 Sibling Relationships and Birth Order  184 The Changing Family in a Changing Society  185 Peer Relations, Play, and Media/Screen Time  191 Peer Relations  191 Play  192 Media and Screen Time  194 Summary  195 Key Terms  196

7  Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood  197

Stories of Life-Span Development: Angie and Her Weight  197 Physical Changes and Health  198 Body Growth and Change  198 The Brain  198 Motor Development  199 Exercise  199 Health, Illness, and Disease  200 Sharon McLeod, Child Life Specialist  201 Children with Disabilities  201 The Scope of Disabilities  202 Educational Issues  206 Cognitive Changes  206 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory  207 Information Processing  208 Intelligence  213 Language Development  221 Vocabulary, Grammar, and Metalinguistic Awareness  221

Reading  222 Second-Language Learning and Bilingual Education  223 Summary  225 Key Terms  225

8  Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood  226

Stories of Life-Span Development: Learning in Troubled Schools  226 Emotional and Personality Development  227 The Self  227 Emotional Development  230 Moral Development  232 Melissa Jackson, Child Psychiatrist  233 Gender  236 Families  239 Developmental Changes in Parent-Child Relationships  239 Parents as Managers  240 Attachment  240 Stepfamilies  240 Peers  241 Developmental Changes  242 Peer Status  242 Social Cognition  243 Bullying  243 Friends  245 Schools  246 Contemporary Approaches to Student Learning  246 Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, and Culture  248 Ahou Vaziri, Teach for America Instructor  249

Summary  254 Key Terms  254

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9  Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence  255

Stories of Life-Span Development: Annie, Arnie, and Katie  255 The Nature of Adolescence  256 Physical Changes  257 Puberty  257 The Brain  260 Adolescent Sexuality  262 Lynn Blankinship, Family and Consumer Science Educator  266 Adolescent Health  267 Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, University Professor in Pediatrics and Director of Community Efforts to Improve Adolescents’ Health  268 Nutrition and Exercise  268 Sleep Patterns  269 Leading Causes of Death in Adolescence  271 Substance Use and Abuse  271 Eating Disorders  272 Adolescent Cognition  274 Piaget’s Theory  274

Adolescent Egocentrism  275 Information Processing  276 Schools  277 The Transition to Middle or Junior High School  278 Effective Schools for Young Adolescents  278 High School  279 Service Learning  280 Summary  280 Key Terms  281

10  Socioemotional Development in Adolescence  282

Stories of Life-Span Development: Jewel Cash, Teen Dynamo  282 Identity  283 What Is Identity?  283 Erikson’s View  284 Developmental Changes  284 Ethnic Identity  286 Families  287 Parental Management and Monitoring  287 Autonomy and Attachment  288 Parent-Adolescent Conflict  289 Peers  290 Friendships  290 Peer Groups  291 Dating and Romantic Relationships  292 Culture and Adolescent Development  294 Cross-Cultural Comparisons  294 Socioeconomic Status and Poverty  296 Ethnicity  296

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Media and Screen Time  298 Adolescent Problems  299 Juvenile Delinquency  299 Depression and Suicide  300 Rodney Hammond, Health Psychologist  301 The Interrelation of Problems and Successful Prevention/Intervention Programs  303 Summary  304 Key Terms  304

11 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  305

Stories of Life-Span Development: Dave Eggers, Pursuing a Career in the Face of Stress  305 The Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood  306 Becoming an Adult  306 The Transition from High School to College  308 Grace Leaf, College/Career Counselor and College Administrator  309 Physical Development  309 Physical Performance and Development  309 Health  310 Sexuality  313 Sexual Activity in Emerging Adulthood  313 Sexual Orientation and Behavior  313 Sexually Transmitted Infections  316 Cognitive Development  317 Cognitive Stages  318 Creativity  319 Careers and Work  320

Careers  320 Work  321 Summary  324 Key Terms  324


12 Socioemotional Development in Early Adulthood  325

Stories of Life-Span Development: Gwenna’s Pursuit and Greg’s Lack of Commitment  325 Stability and Change from Childhood to Adulthood  326 Love and Close Relationships  328 Intimacy  328 Friendship  329 Romantic and Affectionate Love  329 Consummate Love  331 Cross-Cultural Variations in Romantic Relationships  331 Adult Lifestyles  332 Single Adults  332 Cohabiting Adults  333 Married Adults  334 Divorced Adults  336 Remarried Adults  337 Gay and Lesbian Adults  337

Challenges in Marriage, Parenting, and Divorce  338 Making Marriage Work  338 Becoming a Parent  339 Janis Keyser, Parent Educator  340 Dealing with Divorce  341 Gender and Communication Styles, Relationships, and Classification  341 Gender and Communication Styles  342 Gender and Relationships  342 Gender Classification  343 Summary  344 Key Terms  344

13 Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood  345

Stories of Life-Span Development: Changing Perceptions of Time  345 The Nature of Middle Adulthood  346 Changing Midlife  346 Defining Middle Adulthood  347 Physical Development  348 Physical Changes  348 Health and Disease  351 Mortality Rates  351 Sexuality  352 Cognitive Development  354 Intelligence  354 Information Processing  357 Careers, Work, and Leisure  357 Work in Midlife  358

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Career Challenges and Changes  358 Leisure  359 Religion and Meaning in Life  360 Religion and Adult Lives  360 Religion and Health  360 Gabriel Dy-Liacco, University Professor and Pastoral Counselor  361 Meaning in Life  361 Summary  362 Key Terms  362

14 Socioemotional Development in Middle Adulthood  363

Stories of Life-Span Development: Sarah and Wanda, Middle- Age Variations  363 Personality Theories and Development  364 Adult Stage Theories  364 The Life-Events Approach  366 Stress and Personal Control in Midlife  367 Stability and Change  368 Longitudinal Studies  368 Conclusions  371 Close Relationships  371 Love and Marriage at Midlife  372 The Empty Nest and Its Refilling  373 Sibling Relationships and Friendships  374 Grandparenting  374 Intergenerational Relationships  376 Summary  377 Key Terms  377

©Paul Sutherland/Getty Images

15 Physical and Cognitive Development in Late Adulthood  378

Stories of Life-Span Development: Learning to Age Successfully  378 Longevity, Biological Aging, and Physical Development  379 Longevity  379 Biological Theories of Aging  381 The Aging Brain  384 Physical Development  386 Sexuality  389 Health  390 Health Problems  390 Exercise, Nutrition, and Weight  391 Health Treatment  393 Sarah Kagan, Geriatric Nurse  394 Cognitive Functioning  394 Multidimensionality and Multidirectionality  394 Use It or Lose It  398 Training Cognitive Skills  399 Cognitive Neuroscience and Aging  400 Work and Retirement  401 Work  402 Adjustment to Retirement  402

Mental Health  403 Dementia and Alzheimer Disease  403 Parkinson Disease  406 Summary  407 Key Terms  407

16 Socioemotional Development in Late Adulthood  408

Stories of Life-Span Development: Bob Cousy, Adapting to Life as an Older Adult  408 Theories of Socioemotional Development  409 Erikson’s Theory  409 Activity Theory  410 Socioemotional Selectivity Theory  410 Selective Optimization with Compensation Theory  412 Personality and Society  413 Personality  413 Older Adults in Society  413 Families and Social Relationships  415 Lifestyle Diversity  415 Attachment  417 Older Adult Parents and Their Adult Children  417 Friendship  418 Social Support and Social Integration  418 Altruism and Volunteerism  419 Ethnicity, Gender, and Culture  419 Ethnicity  419 Norma Thomas, Social Work Professor and Administrator  420 Gender  420 Culture  420

Successful Aging  421 Summary  422 Key Terms  422

17 Death, Dying, and Grieving  423

Stories of Life-Span Development: Paige Farley-Hackel and Ruth McCourt, 9/11/2001  423 Defining Death and Life/Death Issues  424 Determining Death  424 Decisions Regarding Life, Death, and Health Care  424 Kathy McLaughlin, Home Hospice Nurse  427 Death and Sociohistorical, Cultural Contexts  428 Changing Historical Circumstances  428 Death in Different Cultures  428 Facing One’s Own Death  429 Kübler-Ross’ Stages of Dying  429 Perceived Control and Denial  430 Coping with the Death of Someone Else  430 Communicating with a Dying Person  430 Grieving  431 Making Sense of the World  433 Losing a Life Partner  433 Forms of Mourning  434 Summary  435 Key Terms  435

Glossary  G-1 References  R-1 Name Index  N-1 Subject Index  S-1

McGraw-Hill Education Psycholog y’s APA Documentation Style Guide

Page ix

How Would You?

Psychology Professions

Sociocultural factors in research, pg. 8 Risk of birth defects, pg. 57 Attachment in toddlers, pg. 129 Type of caregiving and infant development, pg. 138 Curriculum balance in early childhood education, pg. 166 Parenting styles and young children, pg. 179 Piaget’s contributions, pg. 208 Improving children’s creative thinking, pg. 211 Applying Gardner’s theory of multipleintelligences, pg. 215 Child’s sense of self, pg. 227 Gender and developing academic and social skills, pg. 238 Aggressive children, pg. 243 Adolescent mood swings, pg. 258 Applying Marcia’s theory of identity formation, pg. 285 Dating in early adolescence, pg. 294 Suicide prevention in adolescents, pg. 303 Markers of adulthood, pg. 307 Cohabitation before marriage, pg. 334 Sex in middle adulthood, pg. 354 Leisure and stress reduction in middle age, pg. 359 Young adults and their parents living together, pg. 373

Nursing home quality, pg. 393 Cognitive skills in older adults, pg. 400 Adjustment to retirement, pg. 403 Benefits of a life review in late adulthood, pg. 410 Divorce in late adulthood, pg. 416 Euthanasia, pg. 426 Stages of dying, pg. 429

Education Professions

Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory, pg. 26 Domain-specific mechanisms and exceptional students, pg. 38 Concept development in infants, pg. 105 Games and scaffolding, pg. 133 Child-care programs for infants, pg. 137 Application of Vygotsky’s theory, pg. 150 Developmentally appropriate education, pg. 163 Gender development in early childhood, pg. 177 Home maltreatment and school performance, pg. 184 Learning through play, pg. 193 Physical activity in elementary school, pg. 200 Learning disabilities in elementary school, pg. 202 Improving children’s megacognitive skills, pg. 212 Programs for gifted children, pg. 220 Self-concept and academic ability, pg. 229 Self-efficacy, pg. 230 Reducing bullying in school, pg. 245 Applying the jigsaw strategy, pg. 250 Mindset, pg. 253

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Sex education for adolescents, pg. 267 Sleep needs vs. early classes in high school, pg. 271 Adolescent decision-making exercises, pg. 277 Transition to middle school, pg. 278 Service learning, pg. 280 High school graduation, pg. 295 Transition to college, pg. 308 Intellectual development in early adulthood, pg. 318 Cultivating creativity, pg. 319 Work during college, pg. 322 Intelligence changes in middle adulthood, pg. 355 Generativity in middle age, pg. 364 Changes in learning as people age, pg. 383 Older adult students in the classroom, pg. 388 Volunteerism in late adulthood, pg. 419

Social Work Professions

Nonnormative life events, pg. 6 Down syndrome, pg. 45 Drug abuse during pregnancy, pg. 60 Environmental deprivation in childhood, pg. 110 Infant temperament, pg. 122 Obesity risk factors, pg. 201 Coping with a traumatic event, pg. 232 Peer relationships, pg. 242 Conflict in families with adolescents, pg. 289 Juvenile delinquency, pg. 300 Transition to adulthood, pg. 306

Alcohol use on college campuses, pg. 312 Healthy lifestyles for middle-aged adults, pg. 350 Careers in middle adulthood, pg. 359 Divorce in middle age, pg. 372 Importance of a living will, pg. 425 Bereavement, pg. 432 Grief support groups, pg. 434

Health Care Professions

Cross-cultural research in health and wellness, pg. 8 Natural selection and medicine, pg. 38 Genetic abnormalities, pg. 46 Stress during pregnancy, pg. 63 Delivery options for pregnant women, pg. 68 Care for preterm infants, pg. 72 SIDS prevention, pg. 83 Attachment/caregiving style and at-risk infants, pg. 131 Nutrition for young children, pg. 144 Sports leagues for preschool children, pg. 145 Second-hand smoke and young children, pg. 146 Health services for Head Start program, pg. 164 Moral reasoning in young children, pg. 173 Maltreatment prevention with parents, pg. 183 Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, pg. 203 Health risks to bullying victims, pg. 244 Effects of poor nutrition on achievement tests, pg. 248 Development norms in puberty, pg. 260 Physical fitness in adolescence, pg. 269

Signs of eating disorders, pg. 273 Culturally sensitive guidelines for adolescent health coverage, pg.

294 Exercise in young adulthood, pg. 312 Prevention of sexually transmitted infections, pg. 317 Romance and sexual functioning, pg. 330 Stress reduction for middle-aged workers, pg. 368 Long-term effects of alcohol abuse and smoking in middle age, pg.

371 Challenges in middle age of caring for a chronically ill parent, pg. 376 Vision changes in late adulthood, pg. 387 Chronic diseases in late adulthood, pg. 390 Quality of medical care for older adults, pg. 393 Memory declines in late adulthood, pg. 405 Limited social contact in older adults, pg. 411 Treatment of chronic illness in older adults, pg. 414 Explaining brain death, pg. 424

Human Development and Family Studies Professions

Epigenetic view and alcoholism, pg. 49 Risks during prenatal development, pg. 53 Postpartum adjustment, pg. 74 Gross motor milestones, pg. 90 Attention in infants, pg. 103 Language development, pg. 112 Stranger anxiety, pg. 117 Autonomy in toddlers, pg. 125

Concept of conservation and young children, pg. 148 Children’s ideas about gender roles, pg. 176 Parenting styles, pg. 179 Children’s TV viewing, pg. 195 Treatment for ADHD, pg. 204 Advantages of bilingualism, pg. 224 Children’s adjustment to parent’s remarriage after divorce, pg. 241 Body image in adolescent girls, pg. 259 Parental prevention of teen substance abuse, pg. 272 Bicultural identity formation in teens, pg. 287 Sexuality in young adulthood, pg. 314 Attachment and relationship style in adulthood, pg. 327 Making marriage work, pg. 339 Deciding when to have children, pg. 341 Media and the physical changes of middle age, pg. 348 Hormone replacement therapy, pg. 352 Leaving a legacy for the next generation, pg. 365 Benefits of having grandparents in children’s lives, pg. 375 Ageism, pg. 414 Friendship in late adulthood, pg. 418 Hospice, pg. 427 Perceived control over end of life, pg. 430

Page xi

About the Author

John W. Santrock John Santrock received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in 1973. He taught at the University of Charleston and the University of Georgia before joining the Program in Psychology and Human Development at the University of Texas at Dallas, where he currently teaches a number of undergraduate courses and has received the University’s Effective Teaching Award. In 2010, he created the UT-Dallas Santrock undergraduate scholarship, an annual award that is given to outstanding undergraduate students majoring in developmental psychology to enable them to attend research conventions.

John has been a member of the editorial boards of Child Development and Developmental Psychology. His research on the multiple factors involved in how divorce affects children’s development is widely cited and used in expert witness testimony to promote flexibility and alternative considerations in custody disputes.

John also has authored these exceptional McGraw-Hill texts: Children (14th edition), Adolescence (17th edition), Life-Span Development (17th edition), A Topical Approach to Life-Span Development (9th edition), and Educational Psychology (6th edition).

John Santrock (back row middle) with the 2015 recipients of the Santrock Travel Scholarship Award in developmental psychology. Created by Dr. Santrock, this annual award provides undergraduate students with the opportunity to attend a professional meeting. A number of the students shown here attended the Society for Research in Child Development conference. Courtesy of Jessica Serna

For many years, John was involved in tennis as a player, teaching professional, and coach of professional tennis players. At the University of Miami (FL), the tennis team on which he played still holds the NCAA Division I record for most consecutive wins (137) in any sport. His wife, Mary Jo, has a master’s degree in special education and has worked as a teacher and a Realtor. He has two daughters—Tracy, who worked for a number of years as a technology marketing specialist, and Jennifer, who has been a medical sales specialist. However, recently both have followed in their mother’s footsteps and are now Realtors. Tracy has run the Boston and New York marathons. Jennifer is a former professional tennis player and NCAA tennis player of the year. John has one granddaughter, Jordan, age 26, who works at Ernst & Young accounting firm, and two grandsons, Alex, age 13, and Luke, age 12. In the last two decades, John also has spent time painting expressionist art.


With special appreciation to my wife, Mary Jo.

Page xii

Connecting research and results As a master teacher, John Santrock connects current research and real-world applications. Through an integrated, personalized digital learning program, students gain the insight they need to study smarter and improve performance.

McGraw-Hill Education Connect is a digital assignment and assessment platform that strengthens the link between faculty, students, and course work, helping everyone accomplish more in less time. Connect for Life-Span Development includes assignable and assessable videos, quizzes, exercises, and interactivities, all associated with learning objectives. Interactive assignments and videos allow students to experience and apply their understanding of psychology to the world with fun and stimulating activities.

Real People, Real World, Real Life At the higher end of Bloom’s taxonomy (analyze, evaluate, create), the McGraw-Hill Education Milestones video series is an observational tool that allows students to experience life as it unfolds, from infancy to late adulthood. This ground-breaking, longitudinal video series tracks the development of real children as they progress through the early stages of physical, social, and emotional development in their first few weeks, months, and years of life. Assignable and assessable within Connect for Life-Span Development, Milestones also includes interviews with

adolescents and adults to reflect development throughout the entire life span.

Inform and Engage on Psychological Concepts At the lower end of Bloom’s taxonomy, students are introduced to Concept Clips—the dynamic, colorful graphics and stimulating animations that break down some of psychology’s most difficult concepts in a step-by-step manner, engaging students and aiding in retention. They are assignable and assessable in Connect or can be used as a jumping-off point in class. Accompanied by audio narration, Concept Clips cover topics such as object permanence and conservation, as well as theories and theorists like Bandura’s social cognitive theory, Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory, Buss’s evolutionary theory, and Kuhl’s language development theory.

Page xiii Prepare Students for Higher- Level Thinking Also at the higher end of Bloom’s taxonomy, Power of Process for Psychology helps students improve critical thinking skills and allows instructors to assess these skills efficiently and effectively in an online environment. Available through Connect, pre-loaded journal articles are available for instructors to assign. Using a scaffolded framework such as understanding, synthesizing, and analyzing, Power of Process moves students toward higher-level thinking and analysis.

Better Data, Smarter Revision, Improved Results Students helped inform the revision strategy of Essentials of Life- Span Development. McGraw-Hill Education’s SmartBook® is the first and only adaptive reading and learning experience! SmartBook helps students distinguish the concepts they know from the concepts they don’t, while pinpointing the concepts they are about to forget. SmartBook continuously adapts to create a truly personalized learning path. SmartBook’s real-time reports help both students and instructors identify the concepts that require more attention, making study sessions and class time more efficient.

Content revisions are informed by data collected anonymously through McGraw-Hill Education’s SmartBook.

STEP 1. Over the course of three years, data points showing concepts that caused students the most difficulty

were anonymously collected from Connect for Life-Span Development’s SmartBook.

STEP 2. The data from SmartBook was provided to the author in the form of a Heat Map, which graphically illustrates “hot spots” in the text that affect student learning (see image at right).

STEP 3. The author used the Heat Map data to refine the content and reinforce student comprehension in the new edition. Additional quiz questions and assignable activities were created for use in Connect to further support student success.

RESULT: Because the Heat Map gave the author empirically based feedback at the paragraph and even sentence level, he was able to develop the new edition using precise student data that pinpointed concepts that gave students the most difficulty.

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New to this edition, SmartBook is now optimized for mobile and tablet and is accessible for students with disabilities. Content-wise, it has been enhanced with improved learning objectives that are measurable and observable to improve student outcomes. SmartBook personalizes learning to individual student needs, continually adapting to pinpoint knowledge gaps and focus learning on topics that need the most attention. Study time is more productive and, as a result, students are better prepared for class and coursework. For instructors, SmartBook tracks student progress and provides insights that can help guide teaching strategies.

Powerful Reporting Whether a class is face-to-face, hybrid, or entirely online, Connect for Life-Span Development provides tools and analytics to reduce the amount of time instructors need to administer their courses. Easy-to-use course management tools allow instructors to spend less time administering and more time teaching, while easy-to-use reporting features allow students to monitor their progress and optimize their study time.

The At-Risk Student Report provides instructors with one-click access to a dashboard that identifies students who are at risk of dropping out of the course due to low engagement levels. The Category Analysis Report details student performance relative to specific learning objectives and goals, including APA outcomes and levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Connect Insight is a one-of-a-kind visual analytics dashboard —now available for both instructors and students—that provides at-a-glance information regarding student performance. The LearnSmart Reports allow instructors and students to easily monitor progress and pinpoint areas of weakness, giving each student a personalized study plan to achieve success.

Online Instructor Resources The resources listed here accompany Essentials of Life-Span Development, Sixth Edition. Please contact your McGraw-Hill representative for details concerning the availability of these and other valuable materials that can help you design and enhance your course.

Instructor’s Manual Broken down by chapter, this resource provides chapter outlines, suggested lecture topics, classroom activities and demonstrations, suggested student research projects, essay questions, and critical thinking questions.

Test Bank and Computerized Test Bank This comprehensive Test Bank includes more than 1,500 multiple-choice and approximately 75 essay questions. Organized by chapter, the questions are designed to test factual, applied, and conceptual understanding. All test questions are available within TestGen™ software.

PowerPoint Slides The PowerPoint presentations, now WCAG compliant, highlight the key points of the chapter and include supporting visuals. All of the slides can be modified to meet individual needs.

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The Essential Approach to Life-Span Development In the view of many instructors who teach the life-span development course, the biggest challenge they face is covering all periods of human development within one academic term. My own teaching experience bears this out. I have had to skip over much of the material in a comprehensive life-span development text in order to focus on key topics and concepts that students find difficult and to fit in applications that are relevant to students’ lives. I wrote Essentials of Life-Span Development to respond to the need for a shorter text that covers core content in a way that is meaningful to diverse students.

This sixth edition continues my commitment to providing a brief introduction to life-span development—with an exciting difference. Recognizing that most of today’s students have grown up in a digital world, I take very seriously the need for communicating content in different ways, online as well as in print. Consequently, I’m enthusiastic about McGraw- Hill’s online assignment and assessment platform, Connect for Life-Span Development, which incorporates this text, and the captivating Milestones video modules. Together, these resources give students and instructors the essential coverage, applications, and course tools they need to tailor the life- span course to meet their specific needs.

The Essential Teaching and Learning Environment

Research shows that students today learn in multiple modalities. Not only do their work preferences tend to be more visual and more interactive, but also their reading and study sessions often occur in short bursts. With shorter chapters and innovative interactive study modules, Essentials of Life-Span Development allows students to study whenever, wherever, and however they choose. Regardless of individual study habits, preparation, and approaches to the course, Essentials connects with students on a personal, individual basis and provides a road map for success in the course.

Essential Coverage

The challenge in writing Essentials of Life-Span Development was determining what comprises the core content of the course. With the help of consultants and instructors who have responded to surveys and reviewed the content at different stages of development, I am able to present all of the core topics, key ideas, and most important research in life-span development that students need to know in a brief format that stands on its own merits.

The 17 brief chapters of Essentials are organized chronologically and cover all periods of the human life span, from the prenatal period through late adulthood and death. Providing a broad overview of life-span development, this text especially gives attention to the theories and concepts that students seem to have difficulty mastering.

Essential Applications

Applied examples give students a sense that the field of life-span development has personal meaning for them. In this edition of Essentials are numerous real-life applications as well as research applications for each period of the life span.

In addition to applied examples, Essentials of Life-Span Development offers applications for students in a variety of majors and career paths.

How Would You . . . ? questions. Given that students enrolled in the life- span course have diverse majors, Essentials includes applications that appeal to different interests. The most prevalent areas of specialization are education, human development and family studies, health professions, psychology, and social work. To engage these students and ensure that Essentials orients them to concepts that are key to their understanding of life-span development, instructors specializing in these fields contributed How Would You . . . ? questions for each chapter. Strategically placed in the margin next to relevant topics, these questions highlight the essential takeaway ideas for these students. Careers in Life-Span Development. This feature personalizes life-span development by describing an individual working in a career related to the chapter’s focus. One example is Jennifer Leonhard, a genetic

counselor. The feature describes Ms. Leonhard’s education and work setting, discusses various employment options for genetic counselors, and provides resources for students who want to find out more about careers in genetic counseling.

Essential Resources

The following resources accompany Essentials of Life-Span Development, 6th edition. Please contact your McGraw-Hill representative for details concerning the availability of these and other valuable materials that can help you design and enhance your course (see page xiv).

Instructor’s Manual Test Bank WCAG Accessible PowerPoint Slides

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Content Revisions As an indication of the up-to-date nature of this new edition, the text has more than 1,500 citations from 2017, 2018, and 2019. Also, a special effort was made to increase the coverage of the following topics in this new edition: diversity and culture; genetics and epigenetics; neuroscience and the brain; identity issues, especially gender and transgender; health; technology; and successful aging. Following are many of the chapter-by-chapter changes that were made in this new edition of Essentials of Life-Span Development.

Chapter 1: Introduction

Update on life expectancy in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2017) New projections on the significant increase in older adults in the world with estimates of a doubling of the population of individuals 60 and over and a tripling or quadrupling of those 80 and over by 2050 (United Nations, 2015) New career profile on Gustavo Medrano, clinical psychologist, who works at the Family Institute at Northwestern University Updated data on the percentage of U.S. children and adolescents under 18 years of age living in poverty, including data reported separately for African American and Latino families (Jiang, Granja, & Koball, 2017) In the discussion of gender, new content on transgender (Budge & Orovecz, 2018; Budge & others, 2018; Savin-Williams, 2017) In the section on contemporary topics, a new topic—technology—was added and discussed, including an emphasis on how pervasive it has become in people’s lives and how it might influence their development In the coverage of cross-cultural studies, a recent study of 26 countries indicating that individuals in Chile had the highest life satisfaction, those in Bulgaria and Spain the lowest (Jang & others, 2017) New description of the positive outcomes when individuals have pride in

their ethnic group, including recent research (Douglass & Umana-Taylor, 2017; Umana-Taylor & others, 2018) New description of emerging adulthood and the dramatic increase in studies on this transitional period between adolescence and adulthood (Arnett, 2016a,b) Inclusion of a study involving 17-year survival rates of 20- to 93-year-old Korean adults found that when biological age became greater than chronological age, individuals were less likely to have died (Yoo & others, 2017) New content involving how the information processing approach often uses a computer analogy to help explain the connection between cognition and the brain, and how humans process information New discussion of artificial intelligence and the new emerging field of developmental robotics that examines various developmental topics and issues using robots, including a new photograph of a “human-like” baby robot (Morse & Cangelosi, 2017) Updated and expanded coverage of research methods, including the increased use of eye-tracking to assess infants’ perception (van Renswoude & others, 2018), attention (Meng, Uto, & Hashiva, 2017), face processing (Chhaya & others, 2018), autism (Falck-Ytter & others, 2018), and preterm birth effects on language development (Loi & others, 2017)

Chapter 2: Biological Beginnings

Editing and updating of chapter based on comments by leading expert on prenatal development and birth, Janet DiPietro Updated and expanded discussion of genome-wide association studies, including research on autism (Ramswami & Geschwind, 2018), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Sanchez-Reige & others, 2018), cancer (Sucheston-Campbell & others, 2018), obesity (Amare & others, 2017), and Alzheimer disease (Liu & others, 2018) Updated and expanded research on how exercise, nutrition, and respiration can modify the expression of genes (Kader & others, 2018; Poulsen & others, 2018)

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New coverage of the process of methylation, in which tiny atoms attach themselves to the outside of a gene. Researchers have found that exercise, diet, and tobacco use can change whether a gene is expressed or not through the methylation process (Castellano-Castillo & others, 2018; Martin & Fry, 2018). Inclusion of recent research indicating that methylation may be involved in depression (Crawford & others, 2018), breast cancer (Maier & others, 2018), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Kim & others, 2018) Updated and expanded research on gene-gene interaction to include alcoholism (Chen & others, 2017), obesity (Bordoni & others, 2017), type 2 diabetes (Saxena, Srivastaya, & Banergee, 2018), cardiovascular disease (De & others, 2017), and Alzheimer disease (Yin & others, 2018) Inclusion of recent research in which a higher level maternal responsivity to children with fragile X syndrome’s adaptive behavior improved the children’s communication skills (Warren & others, 2017) New content on the number of children born worldwide with sickle-cell anemia and how stem cell transplantation is being explored in the treatment of infants with sickle-cell anemia (Azar & Wong, 2017) Updated description of how research now supports the use of hydroxyurea therapy for infants with sickle cell anemia beginning at 9 months of age (Nevitt, Jones, & Howard, 2017) New career profile on Jennifer Leonhard, genetic counselor New content on fertility drugs being more likely to produce multiple births than in vitro fertilization (March of Dimes, 2017) New coverage of a recent national study in which low birthweight and preterm birth were significantly higher in assisted-reproduction technology conceived infants (Sunderam & others, 2017) Updated data on the average length and weight of the fetus at different points in prenatal development, including revisions involving these data in Figure 8 New commentary about neurogenesis being largely complete by about the end of the fifth month of prenatal development (Keunen, Counsell, & Benders, 2017) Discussion of a recent meta-analysis of 15 studies that concluded

smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of children having ADHD and that the risk is greater if their mother is a heavy smoker (Huang & others, 2018) New content about a recent large-scale U.S. study in which 11.5 percent of adolescent and 8.7 percent of adult pregnant women reported using alcohol in the previous month (Oh & others, 2017) Description of recent research in which daughters whose mothers smoked during their pregnancy were more likely to subsequently smoke during their own pregnancy (Ncube & Mueller, 2017) Coverage of a recent study that found despite the plethora of negative outcomes for maternal smoking during pregnancy, 23 percent of pregnant adolescents and 15 percent of adult pregnant women reported using tobacco in the previous month (Oh & others, 2017) Inclusion of recent research in which cocaine use during pregnancy was associated with impaired connectivity of the thalamus and prefrontal cortex in newborns (Salzwedel & others, 2017) Discussion of recent research indicating that cocaine use by pregnant women is linked to self-regulation problems at age 12 (Minnes & others, 2016) New research indicating that pregnant women have increased their use of marijuana in recent years (Brown & others, 2016) Coverage of the recent concern that marijuana use by pregnant women may further increase given the increasing number of states that are legalizing marijuana (Chasnoff, 2017) New section, “Synthetic Opioids and Opiate-Related Pain Killers,” that discusses the increasing use of these substances by pregnant women and their possible harmful outcomes for pregnant women and their offspring (Haycraft, 2018; National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2018) New description of recent research indicating that prenatal mercury exposure in fish is linked to reduced placental and fetal growth, as well as impaired neuropsychological development (Jeong & others, 2017; Llop & others, 2017; Murcia & others, 2016) Revised content on fish consumption by pregnant women, who are now being advised to increase their fish consumption, especially eating more low-mercury-content fish such as salmon, shrimp, tilapia, and cod

(American Pregnancy Association, 2018) Inclusion of recent research that revealed maternal prenatal stress and anxiety were linked to lower levels of infants’ self-regulation (Korja & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent study that found when fetuses were exposed to serotonin-based antidepressants, they were more likely to be born preterm (Podrebarac & others, 2017) Description of a recent research review that concluded tobacco smoking is linked to impaired male fertility and increases in DNA damage, aneuploidy (abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell), and mutations in sperm (Beal, Yauk, & Marchetti, 2017) Discussion of a recent research review in which participation in CenteringPregnancy increased initiation of breast feeding by 53 percent overall and by 71 percent in African American women (Robinson, Garnier-Villarreal, & Hanson, 2018) Discussion of a recent study that revealed regular exercise by pregnant women was linked to more advanced development in the neonatal brain (Laborte-Lemoyne, Currier, & Ellenberg, 2017) Inclusion of recent research in which two weekly 70-minute yoga sessions reduced pregnant women’s stress and enhanced their immune system functioning (Chen & others, 2017) New main heading, “Normal Prenatal Development,” that includes a description of how most of the time prenatal development occurs in a normal manner Coverage of a recent Swedish study that found women who gave birth in water had fewer vaginal tears, shorter labor, needed fewer drugs for pain relief and interventions by medical personnel, and rated their birth experience more positive than women who had conventional spontaneous vaginal births (Ulfsdottir, Saltvedt, & Gerogesson, 2018) Inclusion of recent studies in which massage reduced women’s pain during labor (Gallo & others, 2018; Shahoei & others, 2018; Unalmis Erdogan, Yanikkerem, & Goker, 2018) Update on the percentage of U.S. births that take place in hospitals, at home, and in birthing centers and the percentage of babies born through cesarean delivery (Martin & others, 2017)

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Update on the percentage of births in the United States in which a midwife is involved (Martin & others, 2017) New description of global cesarean delivery rates with the Dominican Republic and Brazil having the highest rates (56 percent) and New Zealand and the Czech Republic the lowest (26 percent) (McCullough, 2016). The World Health Organization recommends a cesarean rate of 10 percent or less. Revised and updated content on cesarean delivery to include the two most common reasons of why it is carried out: failure to progress through labor and fetal distress Updated weights for classification as a low birth weight baby, a very low birth weight baby, and an extremely low birth weight baby Updated data on the percentage of births in the United States that are preterm, low birth weight, and cesarean section (Martin & others, 2017) Description of recent research indicating that extremely preterm and low birth weight infants have lower executive function, especially in working memory and planning (Burnett & others, 2018) Inclusion of recent research that revealed kangaroo care was effective in reducing neonatal pain (Mooney-Leber & Brummelte, 2017) Discussion of a longitudinal study in which the nurturing positive effects of kangaroo care with preterm and low birth weight infants at one year of age were still present 20 years later in a number of positive developmental outcomes (Charpak & others, 2018) Coverage of a recent study that revealed worsening or minimal improvement in sleep problems from 6 weeks to 7 months postpartum were associated with increased depressive symptoms (Lewis & others, 2018) Description of recent research that found women who had a history of depression were 20 times more likely to develop postpartum depression than women who had no history of depression (Silverman & others, 2017) Inclusion of recent research in which mothers’ postpartum depression, but not generalized anxiety, was linked to their children’s emotional negativity and behavior problems at two years of age (Prenoveau & others, 2017)

Coverage of a recent meta-analysis that concluded that physical exercise during the postpartum period is a safe strategy for reducing postpartum depressive symptoms (Poyatos-Leon & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent study that found depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers were linked to impaired bonding with their infant in the postpartum period (Kerstis & others, 2016)

Chapter 3: Physical and Cognitive Development in Infancy

Revisions based on feedback from leading children’s nutrition expert, Maureen Black, and leading children’s motor development expert, Karen Adolph New discussion of how infant growth is often not smooth and continuous but rather is episodic, occurring in spurts (Adolph, 2018; Lampl & Schoen, 2017) Description of a recent study in which sleep sessions lasted approximately 3.5 hours during the first few months and increased to about 10.5 hours from 3 to 7 months (Mindell & others, 2016) New commentary about how many mothers today are providing their babies with “tummy time” to prevent a decline in prone skills that can occur because of the “back to sleep movement” to prevent SIDS Discussion of a recent research review that revealed a positive link between infant sleeping and cognitive functioning, including memory, language, and executive function (Tham, Schneider, & Broekman, 2017) Updated data on the continuing increase in breast feeding by U.S. mothers (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016) Updated support for the role of breastfeeding in reducing a number of disease risks for children and their mothers (Bartick & others, 2017) Inclusion of a recent research review indicating that breastfeeding is not associated with a reduced risk of allergies in young children (Heinrich, 2017) Description of recent research indicating a reduction in hospitalization for breastfed infants and breastfeeding mothers for a number of conditions

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(Bartick & others, 2018) Discussion of a recent study that found a small increase in intelligence for children who had been breastfed (Bernard & others, 2017) Description of recent research in which introduction of vegetables between 4 to 5 months of age was linked with a lower level of infant fussy eating at 4 years of age than when they were introduced after 6 months (de Barse & others, 2017) New career profile on Dr. Faize Mustafa-Infante, pediatrician, who especially is passionate about preventing obesity in children Discussion of a recent study that examined a number of predictors of motor milestones in the first year (Flensborg-Madsen & Mortensen, 2017) Revision of the nature/nurture section in the content on perceptual development to better reflect the Gibsons’ view Expanded and updated criticism of the innate view of the emergence of infant morality with an emphasis on the importance of infants’ early interaction with others and later transformation through language and reflective thought (Carpendale & Hammond, 2016) Coverage of a recent study in which hand-eye coordination involving connection of gaze with manual action on objects rather than gaze following alone predicted joint attention (Yu & Smith, 2017) New description of Andrew Meltzoff’s (2017) view that infants’ imitation informs us about their processing of social events and contributes to rapid social learning Inclusion of some revisions and updates based on feedback from leading experts Roberta Golinkoff and Virginia Marchman Revised definition of infinite generativity to include comprehension as well as production New opening commentary about the nature of language learning and how it involves comprehending a sound system (or sign system for individuals who are deaf), the world of objects, actions, and events, and how units such as words and grammar connect sound and world (Israel, 2019; Mithun, 2019) Revised definition of infinite generativity to include comprehension as

well as production Expanded description of how statistical regularity of information is involved in infant word learning (Pace & others, 2016) Expanded discussion of statistical learning, including how infants soak up statistical regularities around them merely through exposure to them (Aslin, 2017) New research on babbling onset predicting when infants would say their first words (McGillion & others, 2017a) New commentary on why gestures such as pointing promote further advances in language development New content on the vocabulary spurt and how it involves the increase in the pace at which words are learned Expanded descriptions of the functions that child-directed speech serves, including providing infants with information about their native language and heightening differences with speech directed to adults (Golinkoff & others, 2015) Coverage of recent research in which child-directed speech in a one-to- one social context for 11- to 14-month-olds was related to productive vocabulary at 2 years of age for Spanish-English bilingual infants for both languages and each language independently (Ramirez-Esparza, Garcia- Sierra, & Kuhl, 2017) Inclusion of a recent study that revealed both full-term and preterm infants who heard more caregiver talk based on all-day recordings at 16 months of age had better language skills at 18 months of age (Adams & others, 2018) New discussion of recent research in several North American urban areas and the small island of Tanna in the South Pacific Ocean that found that fathers in both types of contexts engaged in child-directed speech with their infants (Broesch & Bryant, 2017) New emphasis on the importance of social cues in infant language learning (Ahun & others, 2018; McGillion & others, 2017b; Pace & others, 2016) Revised definitions of recasting, expanding, and labeling New content on the American Association of Pediatrics (2016) recent

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position statement on co-viewing of videos indicating that infants can benefit when parents watch videos with them and communicate with them about the videos Expanded coverage of how parents can facilitate infants’ and toddlers’ language development

Chapter 4: Socioemotional Development in Infancy

Edits made to chapter based on feedback from leading expert Joan Grusec Expanded and updated coverage of the brain’s role in infant emotional development (Bell & others, 2018; Johnson, 2018; Tottenham, 2017) New introductory comments about the important role that cognitive processes, in addition to biological and experiential influences, play in children’s emotional development, both in the moment and across childhood (Bell, Diaz, & Liu, 2018) Discussion of a recent study in which maternal sensitivity was linked to lower levels of infant fear (Gartstein, Hancock, & Iverson, 2017) Description of a recent study that revealed excessive crying in 3-month-olds doubled the risk of behavioral, hyperactive, and mood problems at 5 to 6 years of age (Smarius & others, 2017) Inclusion of a recent study in which maternal sensitivity was linked to better emotional self-regulation in 10-month-old infants (Frick & others, 2018) Coverage of a recent study that found depressed mothers rocked and touched their crying infants less than non-depressed mothers did (Esposito & others, 2017a) New description of a study in which young infants with a negative temperament used fewer attention regulation strategies while maternal sensitivity to infants was linked to more adaptive emotion regulation (Thomas & others, 2017) Description of a recent study that revealed if parents had a childhood history of behavioral inhibition, their children who also had a high level of behavioral inhibition were at risk for developing anxiety disorders (Stumper & others, 2017)

New research that found positive affectivity, surgency, and self- regulation capacity assessed at 4 months of age was linked to school readiness at 4 years of age (Gartstein, Putnam, & Kliewer, 2016) Discussion of recent studies indicating a lower level of effortful control and self-regulation capacity in early childhood were linked to a higher level of ADHD symptoms later in childhood (Willoughby, Gottfredson, & Stifter, 2017) and adolescence (Einziger & others, 2017) Expanded and updated content on the increasing belief that babies are socially smarter than used to be thought, including information about Amanda Woodward and her colleagues’ (Krough-Jespersen & Woodward, 2016; Liberman, Woodward, & Kinzler, 2017) research on how quickly infants understand and respond to others’ meaningful intentions Discussion of a recent study in which maternal sensitivity and a better home environment in infancy predicted high self-regulation at 4 years of age (Birmingham, Bub, & Vaughn, 2017) Inclusion of recent research in Zambia, where siblings were substantially involved in caregiving activities, that revealed infants showed strong attachments to both their mothers and their sibling caregivers with secure attachment being the most frequent attachment classification for both mother-infant and sibling-infant relationships (Mooja, Sichimba, & Bakersman-Kranenburg, 2017) Description of a recent study that did not find support for the view that genes influence mother-infant attachment (Leerkes & others, 2017) Description of recent research that revealed providing parents who engage in inadequate or problematic caregiving with practice and feedback focused on interacting sensitively enhances parent-infant attachment security (Coyne & others, 2018; Dozier & Bernard, 2017, 2018; Woodhouse, 2018; Woodhouse & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent study that found when adults used scaffolding, infants were twice as likely to engage in helping behavior (Dahl & others, 2017) Coverage of a recent study of disadvantaged families in which an intervention involving improving early maternal scaffolding was linked to improvement in cognitive skills at 4 years of age (Obradovic & others,

2017) New content about mothers playing 3 times more often with children than fathers do (Cabrera & Rossman, 2017) Inclusion of recent research with low-income families indicating that fathers’ playfulness at 2 years of age was associated with more advanced vocabulary skills at 4 years of age while mothers’ playfulness at 2 years of age was linked to a higher level of emotion regulation at 4 years of age (Cabrera & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent study that found negative outcomes on cognitive development in infancy when fathers were more withdrawn and depressed and positive outcomes on cognitive development when they were more engaged and sensitive, as well as less controlling (Sethna & others, 2018)

Chapter 5: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood

Discussion of a recent study of 4-year-old girls that found a nine-week motor skill intervention improved the girls’ ball skills (Veldman & others, 2017) Description of recent research indicating that higher motor skill proficiency in preschool was linked to engaging in a higher level of physical activity in adolescence (Venetsanou & Kambas, 2017) Inclusion of recent research that found children with a low level of motor competence had a lower motivation for sports participation and lower global self-worth than their counterparts who had a high level of motor competence (Bardid & others, 2018) Discussion of a recent study that revealed 2 ½-year-old children’s liking for fruits and vegetables was related to their eating more fruits and vegetables at 7 years of age (Fletcher & others, 2018) Updated data on the percentage of U.S. 2- to 5-year-old children who are obese, which has recently decreased (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2017) New description of the recently devised 5-2-1-0 obesity prevention

guidelines for young children: 5 or more servings of fruits and vegetables, no more than 2 hours of screen time, minimum of 1 hour of physical activity, and 0 sugar-sweetened beverages daily (Khalsa & others, 2017) New discussion of a longitudinal study that revealed when young children were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, they were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior at 12 years of age (Pagani & others, 2017) Updates and revisions based on feedback from leading expert Megan McClelland Updating of recent research on young children’s executive function (Blair, 2017; Muller & others, 2017), including a recent study in which young children who showed delayed executive function development had a lower level of school readiness (Willoughby & others, 2017) Inclusion of recent research showing the effectiveness of the Tools of the Mind approach in improving a number of cognitive processes and academic skills in young children (Blair & Raver, 2014) New research indicating that parental engagement in mind-mindedness advanced preschool children’s theory of mind (Hughes, Devine, & Wang, 2017) Updated and expanded theory of mind content involving various aspects of social interaction, including secure attachment and mental state talk, parental engagement, peer relations, and living in a higher socioeconomic status family (Hughes, Devine, & Wang, 2018) Inclusion of a recent study of 3- to 5-year-old children that revealed earlier development of executive function predicted theory of mind performance, especially for false-belief tasks (Doenyas, Yavuz, & Selcuk, 2017) Coverage of a recent study in which theory of mind predicted the severity of autism in children (Hoogenhout & Malcolm-Smith, 2017) Revisions to the discussion of young children’s language development based on feedback from leading experts Roberta Golinkoff and Virginia Marchman Coverage of a recent multigenerational study that found when both Head Start children and their mothers had participated in Head Start, positive cognitive and socioemotional outcomes occurred for the children (Chor, 2018)

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Update on the increase in publicly funded preschool programs that now occurs in 42 states plus the District of Columbia (National Institute for Early Education Research, 2016) Description of two recent studies that confirmed the importance of improved parenting engagement and skills in the success of Head Start programs (Ansari & Gershoff, 2016; Roggman & others, 2016)

Chapter 6: Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

New emphasis on the importance of how extensively young children can learn by observing the behavior of others, including a recent study in which young children who observed a peer being rewarded for confessing to cheating were more likely to be honest in the future themselves (Ma & others, 2018) Inclusion of recent research indicating the broad capacity for self-evaluative emotion was present in the preschool years and was linked to young children’s empathetic concern (Ross, 2017) Description of a recent study in which young children with higher emotion regulation were more popular with their peers (Nakamichi, 2019) New commentary about connections between different emotions and how they may influence development, including a recent study in which participants’ guilt proneness combined with their empathy to predict an increase in prosocial behavior (Torstevelt, Sutterlin, & Lugo, 2016) Coverage of a recent study in Great Britain in which gender non- conforming boys were most at risk for peer rejection (Braun & Davidson, 2017) Inclusion of a recent research review of a large number of studies that found authoritarian parenting was associated with a higher level of externalizing problems (Pinquart, 2017) Coverage of a recent study in which an authoritarian style, as well as pressure to eat, were associated with a higher risk for being overweight or obese in young children (Melis Yavuz & Selkuk, 2018)

Discussion of a recent study that revealed children of authoritative parents engaged in more prosocial behavior than their counterparts whose parents used the other parenting styles discussed in the section (Carlo & others, 2018) Description of a recent research review in which authoritative parenting was the most effective parenting style in predicting which children and adolescents would be less likely to be overweight or obese later in their development (Sokol, Qin, & Puti, 2017) New commentary about how in many traditional cultures, fathers use an authoritarian style; in such cultures, children benefit more when mothers use an authoritative parenting style New section, “Further Thoughts about Parenting Styles,” including four factors than can influence how research on parenting styles can be interpreted Coverage of a recent review that concluded there is widespread approval of corporal punishment by U.S. parents (Ciocca, 2017) Inclusion of a recent research review of risk factors for engaging in child neglect that concluded that most risks involved parental factors, including a history of antisocial behavior/criminal offending, having mental/physical problems, and experiencing abuse in their own childhood (Mulder & others, 2018) Discussion of a longitudinal study that found harsh physical punishment in childhood was linked to a higher incidence of intimate partner violence in adulthood (Afifi & others, 2017b) Description of a recent Japanese study in which occasional spanking at 3 years of age was associated with a higher level of behavioral problems at 5 years of age (Okunzo & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent meta-analysis that found when physical punishment was not abusive, physical punishment was still linked to detrimental child outcomes (Gershoff & Grogan-Kaylor, 2016) Coverage of a recent study that found physical abuse was linked to lower levels of cognitive performance and school engagement in children (Font & Cage, 2018) Inclusion of a recent study that revealed exposure to either physical or sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence was linked to an increase in

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13- to 18-year- olds’ suicide ideation, plans, and attempts (Gomez & others, 2017) Description of a longitudinal study in which experiencing early abuse and neglect in the first five years of life were linked to having more interpersonal problems and lower academic achievement from childhood through their 30s (Raby & others, 2018) Coverage of a large-scale study that found a birth order effect for intelligence, with older siblings having slightly higher intelligence, but no birth order effects for life satisfaction, internal/external control, trust, risk taking, patience, and impulsivity (Rohrer, Egloff, & Schukle, 2017) Description of recent research indicating that mothers’ and fathers’ work- family conflict was linked to 4-year-olds’ lower self-control (Ferreria & others, 2018) Discussion of a recent study in which experiencing parents’ divorce, as well as child maltreatment, in childhood was linked to midlife suicide ideation (Stansfield & others, 2017) Inclusion of a recent meta-analysis that revealed when their parents had become divorced, as adults they were more likely to have depression (Sands, Thompson, & Gavsina, 2017) Coverage of a recent study that found interparental hostility was a stronger predictor of children’s insecurity and externalizing problems than interparental disagreement and low levels of interparental cooperation (Davies & others, 2016) Updated data on the percentage of gay and lesbian parents who are raising children Inclusion of recent research that revealed no differences in the adjustment of school-aged children adopted in infancy by gay, lesbian, and heterosexual parents (Farr, 2017) Description of a recent study of lesbian and gay adoptive families indicated that 98 percent of the parents reported their children had adjusted well to school (Farr, Oakley, & Ollen, 2016) Coverage of a longitudinal study that found a multi-component (school- based educational enrichment and comprehensive family services) preschool-to-third-grade intervention with low-income minority children in Chicago was effective in increasing their high school graduation, as

well as undergraduate and graduate school success (Reynolds, Ou, & Temple, 2018) Update on the most recent national survey of screen time indicating a dramatic shift to greater use of mobile devices in young children (Common Sense Media, 2013) Inclusion of recent research with 2- to 6-year-olds that indicated increased TV viewing on weekends was associated with a higher risk of being overweight or obese (Kondolot & others, 2017) Description of a recent meta-analysis that found children’s exposure to prosocial media is linked to higher levels of prosocial behavior and empathetic concern (Coyne & others, 2018)

Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle and Late Childhood

New coverage of the increase in brain connectivity as children develop and a longitudinal study that found greater connectivity between the prefrontal and parietal regions in childhood was linked to better reasoning ability later in development (Wendelken & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent study of elementary school children that revealed 55 minutes or more of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a lower incidence of obesity (Nemet, 2016) Description of a recent meta-analysis that participation in a sustained program of physical activity improved children’s attention, executive function, and academic achievement (de Greeff & others, 2018) Coverage of a recent study with 7- to 13-year-olds in which a 6-week high-intensity exercise program resulted in improved cognitive control and working memory (Moreau, Kirk, & Waldie, 2018) Description of a recent meta-analysis that found children who engage in regular physical activity have better cognitive inhibitory control (Jackson & others, 2016) Inclusion of recent research with 8- to 12-year-olds indicating that screen time was associated with lower connectivity between brain regions, as well as lower language skills and cognitive control, while time spent

reading was linked to higher levels in these areas (Horowitz-Kraus & Hutton, 2018) Updated data on the percentage of 6- to 11-year-old U.S. children who are obese (Ogden & others, 2016) Inclusion of a recent Japanese study that revealed the family pattern that was linked to the highest overweight/obesity in children was a combination of irregular mealtimes and the most screen time for both parents (Watanabe & others, 2016) Discussion of a recent study in which children were less likely to be obese or overweight when they attended schools in states that had a strong policy emphasis on healthy food and beverage (Datar & Nicosia, 2017) Updated statistics on the percentage of U.S. children who have different types of disabilities and revised update of Figure 4 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2016) Description of a recent research review that found girls with ADHD had more problematic peer relations than typically developing girls in a number of areas (Kok & others, 2016) Coverage of a recent research review that concluded ADHD in childhood is linked to a number of long-term outcomes (Erksine & others, 2016) Discussion of a recent study that found childhood ADHD was associated with long-term underachievement in math and reading (Voigt & others, 2017) Description of a recent study in which individuals with ADHD were more likely to become parents at 12 to 16 years of age (Ostergaard & others, 2017) Coverage of a recent research review that concluded stimulation medications are effective in treating children with ADHD in the short term, but that long-term benefits of such medications are not clear (Rajeh & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent meta-analysis that found mindfulness training improved the attention of children with ADHD (Caincross & Miller, 2018) Inclusion of a recent meta-analysis that concluded physical exercise is effective in reducing cognitive symptoms of ADHD in individuals 3 to 25

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years of age (Tan, Pooley, & Speelman, 2017) Coverage of a recent meta-analysis in which exercise was associated with better executive function in children with ADHD (Vysniauske & others, 2018) Description of a recent study in which an 8-week yoga program improved the sustained attention of children with ADHD (Chou & Huang, 2017) New commentary that despite the recent positive research findings using neurofeedback, mindfulness training, and exercise to improve the attention of children with ADHD, it remains to be determined if they are as effective as stimulant drugs and/or whether they benefit children as add-ons to stimulant drugs (Den Jeijer & others, 2017) Updated data on the increasing percentage of children being diagnosed as having autism spectrum disorder (Christensen & others, 2016) Inclusion of a recent study that revealed a lower level of working memory was the executive function most strongly associated with autism spectrum disorders (Ziermans & others, 2017) New coverage of two recent surveys in which only a minority of parents reported that their child’s autism spectrum disorder was identified prior to three years of age and that one-third to one-half of the cases were identified after six years of age (Sheldrick, Maye, & Carter, 2017) Discussion of a recent study in which children’s verbal working memory was linked to these aspects of both first and second language learners: morphology, syntax, and grammar (Verhagen & Leseman, 2016) Inclusion of recent research that found mindfulness-based intervention improved children’s attention self-regulation (Felver & others, 2017) Description of the most recent revision of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children—V, and its increase in the number of subtests and composite scores (Canivez, Watkins, & Dombrowski, 2017) Coverage of recent research that found a significant link between children’s general intelligence and their self-control (Meldrum & others, 2017) Discussion of a recent two-year intervention study with families living in poverty in which maternal scaffolding and positive home stimulation improved young children’s intellectual functioning (Obradovic & others, 2016)

New content on stereotype threat in the section on cultural bias in intelligence tests (Grand, 2017; Lyons & others, 2018; Williams & others, 2018) Update on the percentage of U.S. students who are classified as gifted (National Association for Gifted Children, 2017) New commentary that vocabulary development plays an important role in reading comprehension (Vacca & others, 2018) Coverage of a recent study of 6- to 10-year-old children that found early bilingual exposure was a key factor in bilingual children outperforming monolingual children on phonological awareness and word learning (Jasinsksa & Petitto, 2018) Discussion of research that documented bilingual children were better at theory of mind tasks than were monolingual children (Rubio-Fernandez, 2017)

Chapter 8: Socioemotional Development in Middle and Late Childhood

New description of recent research studies indicating that children and adolescents who do not have good perspective-taking skills are more likely to have difficulty in peer relations and engage in more aggressive and oppositional behavior (Morosan & others, 2017; Nilsen & Basco, 2017; O’Kearney & others, 2017) Inclusion of a longitudinal study that revealed the quality of children’s home environment (which involved assessment of parenting quality, cognitive stimulation, and the physical home environment) was linked to their self-esteem in early adulthood (Orth, 2017) New discussion of the recent book Challenging the Cult of Self-Esteem in Education (Bergeron, 2018) that criticizes education for promising high self-esteem for students, especially those who are impoverished or marginalized Coverage of a longitudinal study that found a higher level of self-control in childhood was linked to a slower pace of aging at 26, 32, and 38 years of age (Belsky & others, 2017)

New description of an app that is effective in improving children’s self- control: New discussion of a longitudinal study in which a higher level of emotion regulation in early childhood was linked to a higher level of externalizing problems in adolescence (Perry & others, 2017) Inclusion of a recent study that revealed females are better than males at facial emotion perception across the life span (Olderbak & others, 2018) New section, “Social-Emotional Education Programs,” that describes two increasingly implemented programs: 1) Second Step (Committee for Children, 2018) and 2) Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL (2018) New career profile on Dr. Melissa Jackson, child and adolescent psychiatrist Substantial revision of the discussion of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development to make it more concise and clear New coverage of how we need to make better progress in dealing with an increasing array of temptations and possible wrongdoings in a human social world in which complexity is accumulating over time (Christen, Narvaez, & Gutzwiller, 2018) Deletion of the section on Gender Role Classification because of decreasing interest in the topic in recent years Discussion of a recent study with eighth grade students in 36 countries that revealed girls had more egalitarian attitudes about gender roles than did boys (Dotti Sani & Uaranta, 2015) Description of a recent meta-analysis of attachment in middle/late childhood and adolescence in which parents of children and adolescents who more securely attached were more responsive, more supportive of children’s and adolescents’ autonomy, used more behavioral control strategies, and engaged in less harsh control strategies (Koehn & Kerns, 2018). Also in this meta-analysis, parents of children and adolescents who showed more avoidant attachment were less responsive and engaged is less behavioral control strategies. Regarding ambivalent attachment, no links to parenting were found. Inclusion of recent research indicating that when children have a better

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