History Work Exam 2
Table of Contents
Keys for Success:
· Explain your points simply, like you would to another student.
· Write in simple sentences and short paragraphs.
· Use specific examples from our readings and class discussion.
· Relate your answers to major concepts and trends we have covered.
· Mention specific things you see in the pictures that relate to the essays.
Essay Topics (choose five):
Please write essays of about 1.5 pages each on five of the following topics. Provide a picture for each of your essays and explain how the picture helps us understand key points. Please avoid repeating the same information in more than one essay. When you use quotes or paraphrase specific information from our reading, please include a page number in parentheses.
1. Colonial Crisis. Explain how the political consciousness of Americans changed in the two decades leading up to Independence. Mention specific events or leaders in Chapter 6.
2. Britain v. America. How did the colonists manage to gain independence, fighting against the powerful British Empire? Mention specific strategies and key events in Chapter 7.
3. The Constitution. Explain why some leaders were not satisfied with the Articles of Confederation. Describe key ideas discussed in framing the Constitution. Why did leaders such as Madison advocate for the Constitution? Why did others oppose it?
4. Early Republic. Examine key leaders in Chapters 9 and 10. How did they address the challenges facing the country? What do you find that is similar—or different—in their plans for the new nation?
5. The Market Economy. Explain how America changed economically in the early to mid 1800s with new transportation systems, factories, commercial farms, and growing cities. What problems and opportunities came with change? (Use Chapter 11; Chapter 10 could also be helpful.)
6. Politics in the Age of Jackson. How did American politics change in the 1820s and 1830s? Why was Jackson such a prominent figure? Explain a few of the political issues of that era. How are the political events of that era similar to modern times?
7. Social Change. Discuss at least three ways you see the society and culture of America changing in the late 1700s and early 1800s. Use specific examples from at least three chapters. In what way are social changes related to political or economic developments we studied?
8. Design Your Own Essay. Identify a theme you see in America from the mid-1700s to early1800s. Develop your theme using a few key terms from at least two chapter handouts. Please put the terms (or key words from questions) in bold the first time you discuss the item.
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Black Youth in the Union Army, undated photo
Th is young African American soldier sits proudly in his Civil War uniform. Black Americans advocated for both freedom and equality from the beginning of the war. With emancipation, they achieved part of that promise.
ABOUT THE COVER IMAGE
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James L. Roark Emory University
Michael P. Johnson Johns Hopkins University
Patricia Cline Cohen University of California, Santa Barbara
Sarah Stage Arizona State University
Susan M. Hartmann The Ohio State University
BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN’S Boston ◆ New York
The American Promise A Concise History
FOR BEDFORD/ST. MARTIN’S Publisher for History: Mary V. Dougherty Executive Editor for History: William J. Lombardo Director of Development for History: Jane Knetzger Senior Developmental Editor: Heidi L. Hood Production Editor: Kendra LeFleur Assistant Production Manager: Joe Ford Editorial Assistant: Arrin Kaplan Production Assistant: Elise Keller Copy Editor: Susan Moore Indexer: Melanie Belkin Photo Researchers: Picture Research by Pembroke Herbert and Sandi Rygiel, Picture Research Consultants, Inc. Permissions Manager: Kalina K. Ingham Senior Art Director: Anna Palchik Text Designer: Jerilyn Bockorick Cover Designer: Marine Miller Cover Photo: Black Youth in the Union Army in undated photo. AP Photo. Cartography: Mapping Specialists Limited Composition: Cenveo® Publisher Services Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons
President, Bedford/St. Martin’s: Denise B. Wydra Director of Marketing: Karen R. Soeltz Production Director: Susan W. Brown Director of Rights and Permissions: Hilary Newman
Copyright © 2014, 2010, 2007, 2003 by Bedford/St. Martin’s
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.
Manufactured in the United States of America.
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For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000)
ISBN: 978–0–312–66676–7 (Combined Edition) ISBN: 978–1–4576–4813–7 (Loose-leaf Format, Combined Volume) ISBN: 978–1–4576–3145–0 (Volume 1) ISBN: 978–1–4576–4814–4 (Loose-leaf Format, Volume 1) ISBN: 978–1–4576–3146–7 (Volume 2) ISBN: 978–1–4576–4815–1 (Loose-leaf Format, Volume 2)
Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on page CR-1 which constitute an extension of the copyright page. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.
Getting students to engage with their history survey course is one of the toughest challenges instructors face. From the beginning, The American Promise has been shaped by our firsthand knowledge that the survey course is one of the most difficult to teach and, for many, also the most difficult to take. With this edition we have entirely rethought how the textbook can best capture students’ interest and support instructors in their classes, whether face-to-face or online. We have undertaken a major overhaul of this edition to bring a new option never before available — a truly concise narrative in a smaller format that is more accessible and affordable than ever. We also strove to offer more of what instructors asked to use in their classes — additional primary sources to foster historical skills and critical think- ing as well as features that consider the relationship of the United States to the rest of the world to give students the global perspective they need more than ever today. In addition, this concise edition comes with LearningCurve, an automatically graded, adaptive learning tool that helps students remember what they have read and tells instructors which topics students are having trouble with. Finally, this edition intro- duces a robust new interactive e-book built into its own course space that makes customizing and assigning the book and its resources simpler than ever. We are pleased this new edition packs in so much in such a concise and affordable format.
The Story of The American Promise Our experience as teachers and our frustrations with available textbooks inspired us to create a book that we could use effectively in our own classrooms. Our knowledge of classroom realities has informed every aspect of each edition and version of The American Promise. We began with a clear framework. We have found that students need both the structure a political narrative provides and the insights gained from examining social and cultural experience. To write a comprehensive, balanced account of American history, we focus on the public arena — the place where politics intersects social and cultural developments — to show how Americans confronted the major issues of their day and created far-reaching historical change.
Our title, The American Promise, reflects our emphasis on human agency and our conviction that the essence of America has been its promise. For millions, the nation has held out the promise of a better life, unfettered worship, equality before the law, representative government, democratic politics, and other freedoms seldom found elsewhere. But none of these promises has come with guarantees. As we see it, much of American history is a continuing struggle over the definition and realiza- tion of the nation’s promise.
Why This Book This Way
To engage students in this American story and to portray fully the diversity of the American experience, we stitch into our narrative the voices of hundreds of contemporaries, provide a vivid art and map program, and situate American history in the global world in which students live. To help students understand American history, we provide the best in pedagogical aids. While this edition rests solidly on our original goals and premises, it has taken on a new role to address the specific needs of brief book users.
The Birth of the Concise Edition Not long after we published the first full-length edition of The American Promise, we realized that many colleagues were seeking a text with all the features of a full- length book but in a briefer, more affordable version. We soon produced such a text in the first Compact Edition, which offered the richness of a full text with multiple special features, a rich art and map program, and ample pedagogy. But in time, the needs of instructors for a still more streamlined text became more acute. Students now entering the classroom are juggling more than ever before, and brief books represent more manageable reading, especially when instructors assign readings beyond the core text. We recognized that a truly concise book would be more attractive to many students and thus would be a version more students would likely read. With those thoughts in mind, we carefully crafted the new Concise Edition, which is shorter in narrative length, still affordable, less intimidating, and also smaller in size to allow students to more easily carry it to class and to their favorite places to read.
The Concise Edition is more than just another brief book, however. As authors, we continue to do our own abridgment to make a narrative that is both brief and rich with memorable details. To engage students more fully, we’ve given the book a new look and have reorganized some of its pedagogical tools so students who are pressed for time can see at a glance what they need to learn. The Concise Edition also offers more of what instructors tell us they really want — primary sources. To give students more direct engagement with the past and more opportunities for instructors to prompt historical thinking, we have expanded the number of document primary sources and added visual sources to the special features program as well. With today’s increasingly interconnected world and the increasing diversity of students, we felt it was essential to convey global connections, so we retained the popular international essays in the special features.
Because, like other instructors, we are eager to ensure students do read this rich material, we are proud to announce the Concise Edition comes with LearningCurve — a game-like online learning tool that can be assigned with each chapter and is automatically graded and scored. LearningCurve provides detailed reports on what students do and do not understand, which allows instructors to adapt lectures and class activities as needed. We are confident instructors will enjoy this feature because their students will come to class far better prepared than ever before. And so, like America itself over the centuries, the fifth edition of The American Promise: A Con- cise History is both recognizable and new.
Features We know that a history survey textbook is often challenging for many students. The benefit of this concise text is that we have made room for all of the essentials busy students need to succeed. Our book is designed to pique students’ interest while helping them with their reading and comprehension. We believe that three aspects of this new Concise Edition make it stand out from the crowd — the special features, visual program, and pedagogical support.
Special Features. We have designed the special features of this Concise Edition as interesting and informative in-depth examinations of key topics that can be used in class discussion or as homework. Each boxed feature concentrates on a historical thinking skill or models historical inquiry, the curiosity at the heart of our discipline. In addition to the questions that probe the substance of each spe- cial feature, we have added a new Connect to the Big Idea question to each fea- ture to help students understand the significance of the featured topic to the chapter as a whole.
Primary sources form the heart of the feature program in this edition. We are pleased to offer more Documenting the American Promise features than ever before — now doubled since the last edition. Each of these features juxtaposes three or four primary documents to show varying perspectives on a topic or an issue and to provide students with opportunities to build and practice their skills of historical interpretation. Feature introductions and document headnotes con- textualize the sources, and Questions for Analysis and Debate promote critical thinking about primary sources. In addition to bringing back some favorites enjoyed in the past, new topics have been added that are rich with human drama and include “Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts,” “Families Divide over the Revolution,” “Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners,” and “The Press and the Pullman Strike.”
Because students are so attuned to visuals and instructors have told us they want a variety of primary sources in this brief text, we have added a new Visualizing History feature to many chapters. Early Native American artifacts, nineteenth- century paintings, photographs by progressive reformers, early-twentieth-century advertisements, and twenty-first-century political cartoons are all presented as sources for examination. By stressing the importance of historical context and asking critical questions, each of these new features shows students how to mine visual documents for evidence about the past.
To demonstrate American history’s relevance in today’s increasingly global world, we felt it was essential to convey global connections in the feature program. Beyond America’s Borders considers the reciprocal relationships between the United States and the wider world and challenges students to think about the effects of transnational connections over time. With the goal of widening students’ perspec- tives and helping students see that this country did not develop in isolation, these features are enhanced by new America in Global Context questions at the end of the essay. New essays in this edition include “Fascism: Adolf Hitler and National Socialism” and “1968: A Year of Protest.”
Visuals. From the beginning, readers have proclaimed this textbook a visual feast, richly illustrated in ways that extend and reinforce the narrative. The fifth Concise Edition offers more than 400 contemporaneous illustrations — one-third of them new — along with innovative techniques for increasing visual literacy. In addition to the new Visualizing History special features that emphasize the use of images for historical analysis, one picture in each chapter includes a special visual activ- ity caption that reinforces this critical skill. More than 200 artifacts — from dolls and political buttons to spy cameras and sewing machines — emphasize the importance of material culture in the study of the past and make the historical account tangible.
Our highly regarded map program, with 165 maps in all, rests on the old truth that “History is not intelligible without geography.” Each chapter typically offers three to four full-size maps showing major developments in the narrative and two or three spot maps embedded in the narrative that emphasize an area of detail from the discussion. To help students think critically about the role of geography in American history, we include two critical-thinking map exercises per chapter. Revised maps in the fifth edition illustrate new scholarship on topics such as the Comanche empire in the American Southwest and events such as the 2012 election.
Pedagogy. The most exciting news about the pedagogy in this Concise Edition is the integration of a new adaptive learning tool — LearningCurve. When instructors assign it, LearningCurve ensures students come to class prepared. LearningCurve offers a game-like interface in which students earn quick points for what they under- stand but are given repeated practice on material — both factual and conceptual —that they still need to master. LearningCurve questions are linked to the corresponding sec- tions in the book so students can read and review the pertinent information they need to master. Prompts in the book remind students to log in and check their understand- ing of the chapter they have just read. Instructors benefit too because they can instantly see who has done the assigned reading and which pieces of information students strug- gle with most. With these detailed reports in hand, instructors can adjust lectures and class activities to address topics students are having trouble with and help them suc- ceed. Every new book comes with a code that unlocks LearningCurve; if students have bought a used book, they can purchase LearningCurve access separately online.
As part of our ongoing efforts to make The American Promise: A Concise His- tory the most teachable and readable survey text available, we paid renewed atten- tion to what would make the most effective pedagogy for a brief text. We started by reimagining our chapter openers with the needs of busy students in mind. Each chapter begins with new Quick Start instructions, a brief chapter outline, a chro- nology, and a concise but colorful opening vignette that invites students into the narrative with lively accounts of individuals or groups who embody the central themes of the chapter. New vignettes in this edition include the Grimké sisters speaking out against slavery, Frederick Jackson Turner proclaiming his frontier hypothesis, migrant mother Frances Owens struggling to survive in the Great Depression, and the experience of Vietnam War veteran Frederick Downs Jr.
We’ve enhanced the pedagogy within the chapters as well. Every major section now begins with an Essential Question that guides students toward comprehension
of main ideas. In addition, key terms, set in boldface type with new marginal glos- sary definitions, highlight important people, events, and concepts.
The Chapter Review section at the end of each chapter provides a thorough guide to ensure student success. A cross-reference to LearningCurve reminds stu- dents to use this adaptive quizzing tool to make what they’ve read stick. A list of Key Terms reminds students to reflect on items in the marginal glossary, while Essential Questions, repeated from within the narrative, focus on specific topics or events. Culminating Making Connections questions ask students to think about broad developments within the chapter. Student Center prompts at the bottom of the review page remind students to visit this site, where they will find free self- assessment quizzes, study aids, and other resources.
Updated Scholarship In our ongoing effort to offer a comprehensive text that braids all Americans into the national narrative and to frame that national narrative in a more global perspective, we updated the fifth Concise Edition in many ways. We have paid particular attention to the most recent scholarship and, as always, appreciated and applied many sugges- tions from our users that keep the book fresh, accurate, and organized in a way that works best for students.
Volume One draws on exciting new scholarship on Native Americans, leading to enhanced coverage of Pontiac’s Rebellion in chapter 6 and more attention to Indi- ans and their roles in the conflict between the British and the colonists in chapter 7. Chapter 9 expands the coverage of American interactions with Indians in the South- west, adding new material on Creek chief Alexander McGillivray. Chapter 10 greatly increases the coverage of Indians in the West, with a new section devoted to the Osage territory and the impressive Comanche empire known as Comanchería. In addition, several new Visualizing History features — on ancient tools used in Chaco Canyon, on Aztec weaponry and its weaknesses in the face of Spanish steel, on Mohawk clothing and accessories, and on gifts exchanged between Anglos and Indians on the Lewis and Clark trail — highlight the significance of Native American material culture over the centuries.
Volume Two also includes expanded attention to Native Americans — particularly in chapter 17, where we improved our coverage of Indian schools, assimilation techniques used by whites, and Indian resistance strategies — but our main effort for the fifth Concise Edition in the second half of the book has been to do more of what we already do best, and that is to give even more attention to women, African Americans, and the global context of U.S. history. In the narrative, we consider the ways in which the GI Bill disproportionately benefited white men after World War II. New features and opening vignettes focus on widely recognized as well as less well-known women who both shaped and were shaped by the Ameri- can experience: the depression-era struggle of Florence Owens (the face of the famous Dorothea Lange photograph Migrant Mother), the workplace reforms set in motion by progressive activist Alice Hamilton, and the World War I service of over- seas volunteer Nora Saltonstall. Chapter 16 includes new coverage of the Colfax massacre, arguably the single worst incidence of brutality against African Americans
during the Reconstruction era. Chapter 27 provides new coverage of civil rights activism in northern states.
Because students live in an increasingly global world and need help making connections with the world outside the United States, we have continued our efforts to incorporate the global context of American history throughout the fifth edition. This is particularly evident in Volume Two, where we have expanded coverage of transnational issues in recent decades, such as the U.S. bombing campaign in Vietnam and U.S. involvement in Afghanistan.
In addition to the many changes noted above, in both volumes we have updated, revised, and improved this fifth Concise Edition in response to both new scholar- ship and requests from instructors. New and expanded coverage areas include, among others, taxation in the pre-Revolutionary period and the early Republic, the Newburgh Conspiracy of the 1780s, the overbuilding of railroads in the West during the Gilded Age, the 1918–1919 global influenza epidemic, finance reform in the 1930s, post–World War II considerations of universal health care, Latino activism, the economic downturn of the late 2000s, the most recent developments in the Mid- dle East, and the Obama presidency.
Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge all of the helpful suggestions from those who have read and taught from previous editions of The American Promise, and we hope that our many classroom collaborators will be pleased to see their influence in the fifth edition. In particular, we wish to thank the talented scholars and teachers who gave generously of their time and knowledge to review this book: Kirk R. Abendroth, Vincennes University; Donna J. Benson, Winston-Salem State University; Edward Black, Jefferson State Community College; David Burleson, Doña Ana Community College; Brian Casserly, Bellevue College; John W. Catron, Santa Fe College; William J. Cuddihy, Long Beach City College; Andy DeRoche, Front Range Community College; Kimberly DesRoches, Western Nevada College; David Driscoll, University of Massachusetts – Lowell; Amy Drumb, Polk State College; Robert Elder, Valparaiso University; Mary Frederickson, Miami University of Ohio; Kirsten Gardner, The University of Texas at San Antonio; George Gerdow, Northeastern Illinois University; Nicki Gonzales, Regis University; Brian L. Hackett, Northern Kentucky University; Lindsey Hinds-Brown, Middle Tennessee State University; Antoinnette Hudson, Jacksonville State University; Clifton Huffmaster, Middle Tennessee State University; Carey Kelley, Missouri State University; William J. Lipkin, Union County College; Matthew Loayza, Minnesota State University, Mankato; Stephanie A. L. Molholt, The Community College of Baltimore County – Catonsville; Johnny S. Moore, Radford University; Steven Noll, University of Florida; Ellen Holmes Pearson, University of North Carolina Asheville; Robert D. Pittman, Lindenwood University/St. Louis Community College; Emily Rader, El Camino College; David B. Raymond, Northern Maine Community College; Daniel Rezny, St. Charles Community College; Tom Robertson, The Community College of Baltimore County; Thomas J. Rowland, University of Wisconsin – Oshkosh; Christopher Staaf, Georgia Gwinnett College; Richard Trimble, Ocean County College; James H. Tuten, Juniata College; Christina
A. Wilbur, Lamar University; Louis Williams, St. Louis Community College – Forest Park; and John Ralph Wilson, Lone Star College North Harris.
A project as complex as this requires the talents of many individuals. First, we would like to acknowledge our families for their support, forbearance, and toleration of our textbook responsibilities. Pembroke Herbert and Sandi Rygiel of Picture Research Consultants, Inc., contributed their unparalleled knowledge, soaring imagination, and diligent research to make possible the extraordinary illustration program.
We would also like to thank the many people at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have been crucial to this project. No one has done more than our friend, senior editor Heidi Hood, who managed the entire revision and supplements program. Heidi’s intelligence, knowledge of U.S. history, commitment to excellence, and unfailing good judgment saved us from many a misstep. Thanks also go to editorial assistant Arrin Kaplan for her assistance coordinating the pre-revision review, preparing the manuscript, and for working on the supplements, along with associate editor Jack Cashman. We are also grateful to Jane Knetzger, director of development for history; William J. Lombardo, executive editor for history; and Mary Dougherty, publisher for history, for their support and guidance. For their imaginative and tireless efforts to promote the book, we want to thank Amy Whitaker, John Hunger, Sean Blest, and Alex Kaufman. With great skill and professionalism, production editors Katherine Caruana and Kendra LeFleur pulled together the many pieces related to copyediting, design, and composition, with the able assistance of Elise Keller and the guidance of managing editor Elizabeth Schaaf and assistant managing editor John Amburg. Senior production supervisor Joe Ford oversaw the manufacturing of the book. Designer Jerilyn Bockorick, copyeditor Susan Moore, and proofreaders Linda McLatchie and Angela Morrison attended to the myriad details that help make the book shine. Melanie Belkin provided an outstanding index. The book’s gorgeous covers were designed by Marine Miller. New media editor Marissa Zanetti and media producer Michelle Camisa made sure that The American Promise remains at the forefront of technological support for students and instructors. President of Bedford/St. Martin’s Denise Wydra provided helpful advice throughout the course of the project. Finally, Charles H. Christensen, former president, took a personal interest in The American Promise from the start, and Joan E. Feinberg, co-president of Macmillan Higher Education, encouraged us through each edition.
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Adopters of The American Promise: A Concise History and their students have access to abundant extra resources, including documents, presentation and testing materials, the acclaimed Bedford Series in History and Culture volumes, and much more. See below for more information, visit the book’s catalog site at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.
Get the Right Version for Your Class To accommodate different course lengths and course budgets, The American Promise is available in several different formats, including three-hole punched loose-leaf Budget Books versions and e-books, which are available at a substantial discount.
• Combined edition (Chapters 1–31) — available in paperback, loose-leaf, and e-book formats
• Volume 1: To 1877 (Chapters 1–16) — available in paperback, loose-leaf, and e-book formats
• Volume 2: From 1865 (Chapters 16–31) — available in paperback, loose-leaf, and e-book formats
Any of these volumes can be packaged with additional books for a discount. To get ISBNs for discount packages, see the online catalog at bedfordstmartins.com /roarkconcise/catalog or contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s representative.
NEW Assign LaunchPad — the online, interactive e-book in a course space enriched with integrated assets. The new standard in digital history, LaunchPad course tools are so intuitive to use that online, hybrid, and face-to-face courses can be set up in minutes. Even novices will find it’s easy to create assignments, track students’ work, and access a wealth of relevant learning and teaching resources. It is the ideal learning environment for students to work with the text, maps, documents, video, and assessment. LaunchPad is loaded with the full interactive e-book and the Reading the American Past documents collection—plus LearningCurve, additional primary sources, videos, guided reading exercises designed to help students read actively for key concepts, boxed feature reading quizzes, chapter summative quizzes, and more. LaunchPad can be used as is or customized, and it easily integrates with course management systems. And with fast ways to build assignments, rearrange chapters, and add new pages, sections, or links, it lets teachers build the course mate- rials they need and hold students accountable.
Versions and Supplements
xiv VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS
Let students choose their e-book format. In addition to the LaunchPad e-book, students can purchase the downloadable Bedford e-Book to Go for The American Promise: A Concise History from our Web site or find other PDF versions of the e-book at our publishing partners’ sites: CourseSmart, Barnes & Noble NookStudy; Kno; CafeScribe; or Chegg.
NEW Assign LearningCurve So You Know What Your Students Know and They Come to Class Prepared As described in the preface and on the inside front cover, students purchasing new books receive access to LearningCurve for The American Promise: A Concise History. Assigning LearningCurve in place of reading quizzes is easy for instructors, and the reporting features help instructors track overall class trends and spot topics that are giving students trouble so they can adjust their lectures and class activities. This online learning tool is popular with students because it was designed to help them rehearse content at their own pace in a nonthreatening, game-like environment. The feedback for wrong answers provides instructional coaching and sends students back to the book for review. Students answer as many questions as necessary to reach a target score, with repeated chances to revisit material they haven’t mastered. When LearningCurve is assigned, students come to class better prepared.
Send Students to Free Online Resources The book’s Student Site at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise gives students a way to read, write, and study by providing plentiful quizzes and activities, study aids, and history research and writing help.
FREE Online Study Guide. Available at the Student Site, this popular resource pro- vides students with quizzes and activities for each chapter, including multiple-choice self-tests that focus on important concepts; flashcards that test students’ knowledge of key terms; timeline activities that emphasize causal relationships; and map quiz- zes intended to strengthen students’ geography skills. Instructors can monitor stu- dents’ progress through an online Quiz Gradebook or receive e-mail updates.
FREE Research, Writing, and Anti-plagiarism Advice. Available at the Student Site, Bedford’s History Research and Writing Help includes the textbook authors’ Suggested References organized by chapter; History Research and Reference Sources, with links to history-related databases, indexes, and journals; Build a Bib- liography, a simple Web-based tool known as The Bedford Bibliographer that gen- erates bibliographies in four commonly used documentation styles; and Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism, an online tutorial that reviews the consequences of plagiarism and features exercises to help students practice integrating sources and recognize acceptable summaries.
VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS xv
Take Advantage of Instructor Resources Bedford/St. Martin’s has developed a rich array of teaching resources for this book and for this course. They range from lecture and presentation materials and assess- ment tools to course management options. Most can be downloaded or ordered at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog.
Bedford Coursepack for Blackboard, Desire2Learn, Canvas, Angel, Sakai, or MoodIe. We have free content to help you integrate our rich content into your course management system. Registered instructors can download coursepacks with no hassle and no strings attached. Content includes our most po pular free resources and book-specific content for The American Promise: A Concise History. Visit bedfordstmartins.com/coursepacks to see a demo, find your version, or down- load your coursepack.
Instructor’s Resource Manual. The instructor’s manual offers both experienced and first-time instructors tools for preparing lectures and running discussions. It includes chapter-review material, teaching strategies, and a guide to chapter-specific supplements available for the text, plus suggestions on how to get the most out of LearningCurve and a survival guide for first-time teaching assistants.
Guide to Changing Editions. Designed to facilitate an instructor’s transition from the previous edition of The American Promise: A Concise History to the current edition, this guide presents an overview of major changes as well as of changes in each chapter.
Computerized Test Bank. The test bank includes a mix of fresh, carefully crafted multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions for each chapter. It also contains volume-wide essay questions. All questions appear in Microsoft Word format and in easy-to-use test bank software that allows instructors to add, edit, re-sequence, and print questions and answers. Instructors can also export questions into a variety of formats, including Blackboard, Desire2Learn, and Moodle.
The Bedford Lecture Kit: PowerPoint Maps, Images, Lecture Outlines, and i>clicker Content. Look good and save time with The Bedford Lecture Kit. These presentation materials are downloadable individually from the Instructor Resources tab at bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise/catalog and are availa- ble on The Bedford Lecture Kit Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM. They provide ready-made and fully customizable PowerPoint multimedia presentations that include lecture outlines with embedded maps, figures, and selected images from the textbook and extra background for instructors. Also available are maps and selected images in JPEG and PowerPoint formats; content for i>clicker, a class- room response system, in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint formats; the Instruc- tor’s Resource Manual in Microsoft Word format; and outline maps in PDF for- mat for quizzing or handing out. All files are suitable for copying onto transparency acetates.
xvi VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS
Reel Teaching: Film Clips for the U.S. History Survey. This DVD provides a large collection of short video clips for classroom presentation. Designed as engaging “lecture launchers” varying in length from one to fifteen or more minutes, the fifty- nine documentary clips were carefully chosen for use in both semesters of the U.S. survey course. The clips feature compelling images, archival footage, personal narra- tives, and commentary by noted historians.
America in Motion: Video Clips for U.S. History. Set history in motion with Amer- ica in Motion, an instructor DVD containing dozens of short digital movie files of events in twentieth-century American history. From the wreckage of the battleship Maine, to FDR’s fireside chats, to Oliver North testifying before Congress, America in Motion engages students with dynamic scenes from key events and challenges them to think critically. All files are classroom-ready, edited for brevity, and easily inte- grated with PowerPoint or other presentation software for electronic lectures or assignments. An accompanying guide provides each clip’s historical context, ideas for use, and suggested questions.
Videos and Multimedia. A wide assortment of videos and multimedia CD-ROMs on various topics in U.S. history is available to qualified adopters through your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.
Package and Save Your Students Money For information on free packages and discounts up to 50%, visit bedfordstmartins .com/roarkconcise/catalog, or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales repre- sentative. The products that follow all qualify for discount packaging.
Reading the American Past, Fifth Edition. Edited by Michael P. Johnson, one of the authors of The American Promise, and designed to complement the textbook, Read- ing the American Past provides a broad selection of over 150 primary-source documents, as well as editorial apparatus to help students understand the sources. Available free when packaged with the print text and included in the LaunchPad e-book. Also available as a downloadable PDF e-book or with the main text’s e-Book to Go.
NEW Bedford Digital Collections @ bedfordstmartins.com/bdc/catalog. This source collection provides a flexible and affordable online repository of discovery- oriented primary-source projects and single primary sources that you can easily cus- tomize and link to from your course management system or Web site. Package discounts are available.
The Bedford Series in History and Culture. More than 120 titles in this highly praised series combine first-rate scholarship, historical narrative, and important primary doc- uments for undergraduate courses. Each book is brief, inexpensive, and focused on a specific topic or period. For a complete list of titles, visit bedfordstmartins.com /history/series. Package discounts are available.
VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS xvii
Rand McNally Atlas of American History. This collection of more than eighty full- color maps illustrates key events and eras from early exploration, settlement, expansion, and immigration to U.S. involvement in wars abroad and on U.S. soil. Introductory pages for each section include a brief overview, timelines, graphs, and photos to quickly establish a historical context. Available for $5.00 when packaged with the print text.
Maps in Context: A Workbook for American History. Written by historical cartography expert Gerald A. Danzer (University of Illinois at Chicago), this skill-building workbook helps students comprehend essential connections between geographic literacy and historical understanding. Organized to corre- spond to the typical U.S. history survey course, Maps in Context presents a wealth of map-centered projects and convenient pop quizzes that give students hands-on experience working with maps. Available free when packaged with the print text.
The Bedford Glossary for U.S. History. This handy supplement for the survey course gives students historically contextualized definitions for hundreds of terms — from abolitionism to zoot suit — that they will encounter in lectures, reading, and exams. Available free when packaged with the print text.
U.S. History Matters: A Student Guide to World History Online. This resource, written by Alan Gevinson, Kelly Schrum, and the late Roy Rosenzweig (all of George Mason University), provides an illustrated and annotated guide to 250 of the most useful Web sites for student research in U.S. history as well as advice on evaluating and using Internet sources. This essential guide is based on the acclaimed “History Matters” Web site developed by the American Social History Project and the Center for History and New Media. Available free when packaged with the print text.
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A Pocket Guide to Writing in History. This portable and affordable reference tool by Mary Lynn Rampolla provides reading, writing, and research advice useful to students in all history courses. Concise yet comprehensive advice on approach- ing typical history assignments, developing critical reading skills, writing effective history papers, conducting research, using and documenting sources, and avoid- ing plagiarism — enhanced with practical tips and examples throughout — have made this slim reference a best seller. Package discounts are available.
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xviii VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS
Going to the Source: The Bedford Reader in American History. Developed by Victoria Bissell Brown and Timothy J. Shannon, this reader’s strong pedagogical framework helps students learn how to ask fruitful questions in order to evaluate documents effectively and develop critical reading skills. The reader’s wide variety of chapter topics that complement the survey course and its rich diversity of sources — from personal letters to political cartoons — provoke students’ interest as it teaches them the skills they need to successfully interrogate historical sources. Package discounts are available.
America Firsthand. With its distinctive focus on ordinary people, this primary documents reader, by Anthony Marcus, John M. Giggie, and David Burner, offers a remarkable range of perspectives on America’s history from those who lived it. Popular Points of View sections expose students to different perspectives on a specific event or topic, and Visual Portfolios invite analysis of the visual record. Package discounts are available.
VERSIONS AND SUPPLEMENTS xix
About the Cover Art i Preface: Why This Book This Way v Versions and Supplements xiii Contents xx Maps, Figures, and Tables xxix Special Features xxxii
1 Ancient America: Before 1492 2 2 Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492–1600 26 3 The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700 50 4 The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601–1700 76 5 Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century, 1701–1770 102 6 The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754–1775 130 7 The War for America, 1775–1783 158
8 Building a Republic, 1775–1789 188 9 The New Nation Takes Form, 1789–1800 216 10 Republicans in Power, 1800–1824 242 11 The Expanding Republic, 1815–1840 272 12 The New West and the Free North, 1840–1860 302 13 The Slave South, 1820–1860 332 14 The House Divided, 1846–1861 358 15 The Crucible of War, 1861–1865 386 16 Reconstruction, 1863–1877 418 Appendices A-1 Glossary G-1
Spot Artifact Credits CR-1 Index I-1 U.S. Political/Geographic and World Maps M-1 About the Authors last book page
LearningCurve Make it stick. bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
About the Cover Art i Preface: Why This Book This Way v Versions and Supplements xiii Brief Contents xix Maps, Figures, and Tables xxix Special Features xxxii
Ancient America, Before 1492 2
OPENING VIGNETTE: An archaeological dig helps uncover ancient North American traditions 2
Archaeology and History 4 The First Americans 5
African and Asian Origins 5 Paleo-Indian Hunters 7
Archaic Hunters and Gatherers 8 Great Plains Bison Hunters 9 Great Basin Cultures 10 Pacific Coast Cultures 10 Eastern Woodland Cultures 11
Agricultural Settlements and Chiefdoms 12 Southwestern Cultures 12 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “Daily Life in Chaco Canyon” 14 Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms 16
Native Americans in the 1490s 17 Eastern and Great Plains Peoples 18 Southwestern and Western Peoples 20 Cultural Similarities 20
The Mexica: A Mesoamerican Culture 21 Conclusion: The World of Ancient
CHAPTER REVIEW 25 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century,
1601–1700 50 OPENING VIGNETTE: Pocahontas “rescues” John Smith 50
An English Colony on Chesapeake Bay 52 The Fragile Jamestown Settlement 53 Cooperation and Conflict between Natives and
Newcomers 54 From Private Company to Royal Government 55
A Tobacco Society 56 Tobacco Agriculture 56 A Servant Labor System 57 BEYOND AMERICA’S BORDERS: “American Tobacco and European Consumers” 60 The Rigors of Servitude 63 Cultivating Land and Faith 63
Hierarchy and Inequality in the Chesapeake 64 Social and Economic Polarization 65 Government Policies and Political Conflict 65 Bacon’s Rebellion 66
Toward a Slave Labor System 68 Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland 68 The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery 69 Carolina: A West Indian Frontier 70 Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake 72
Conclusion: The Growth of English Colonies Based on Export Crops and Slave Labor 73
CHAPTER REVIEW 75 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492–1600 26
OPENING VIGNETTE: Queen Isabella of Spain supports Christopher Columbus’s risky plan to sail west across the Atlantic 26
Europe in the Age of Exploration 28 Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion 28 A Century of Portuguese Exploration 30
A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic 31 The Explorations of Columbus 31 The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian
Exchange 33 Spanish Exploration and Conquest 35
The Conquest of Mexico 35 The Search for Other Mexicos 37 Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico 38 New Spain in the Sixteenth Century 39 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Justifying Conquest” 42 The Toll of Spanish Conquest and
Colonization 45 The New World and Sixteenth-
Century Europe 45 The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish
Response 45 Europe and the Spanish Example 46
Conclusion: The Promise of the New World for Europeans 48
CHAPTER REVIEW 49 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century,
1601–1700 76 OPENING VIGNETTE: Roger Williams is banished from Puritan Massachusetts 76
Puritans and the Settlement of New England 78 Puritan Origins: The English Reformation 78 The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony 80 The Founding of Massachusetts Bay
Colony 80 The Evolution of New England
Society 82 Church, Covenant, and Conformity 83 Government by Puritans for Puritanism 84 The Splintering of Puritanism 85 Religious Controversies and Economic
Changes 87 The Founding of the Middle Colonies 91
From New Netherland to New York 91 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts” 92 New Jersey and Pennsylvania 95 Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania 95
The Colonies and the English Empire 96 Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade 96 King Philip’s War and the Consolidation of Royal
Authority 98 Conclusion: An English Model of
Colonization in North America 100
CHAPTER REVIEW 101 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century,
1701–1770 102 OPENING VIGNETTE: The Robin Johns experience horrific turns of fortune in the Atlantic slave trade 102
A Growing Population and Expanding Economy in British North America 104
New England: From Puritan Settlers to Yankee Traders 106 Natural Increase and Land Distribution 106 Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade 106
The Middle Colonies: Immigrants, Wheat, and Work 109 German and Scots-Irish Immigrants 109 “God Gives All Things to Industry”: Urban and
Rural Labor 110 The Southern Colonies: Land of Slavery 113
The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery 113
Slave Labor and African American Culture 116 Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity 118
Unifying Experiences 119 Commerce and Consumption 119 Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival 120 Trade and Conflict in the North American
Borderlands 122 Colonial Politics in the British Empire 125 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Spanish Priests Report on California Missions” 126
Conclusion: The Dual Identity of British North American Colonists 128
CHAPTER REVIEW 129 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The War for America, 1775–1783 158
OPENING VIGNETTE: Deborah Sampson masquer- ades as a man to join the Continental army 158
The Second Continental Congress 160 Assuming Political and Military Authority 160 Pursuing Both War and Peace 161 Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for
Independence 163 The Declaration of Independence 164
The First Year of War, 1775–1776 165 The American Military Forces 165 The British Strategy 166 Quebec, New York, and New Jersey 166
The Home Front 168 Patriotism at the Local Level 169 The Loyalists 169 Who Is a Traitor? 171 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Families Divide over the Revolution” 172 Prisoners of War 174 Financial Instability and Corruption 175
The Campaigns of 1777–1779: The North and West 175 Burgoyne’s Army and the Battle of Saratoga 176 The War in the West: Indian Country 177 The French Alliance 178
The Southern Strategy and the End of the War 181 Georgia and South Carolina 181 Treason and Guerrilla Warfare 182 Surrender at Yorktown 184 The Losers and the Winners 184
Conclusion: Why the British Lost 186
CHAPTER REVIEW 187 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754–1775 130
OPENING VIGNETTE: Loyalist governor Thomas Hutchinson stands his ground in radical Massachusetts 130
The Seven Years’ War, 1754–1763 132 French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country 132 The Albany Congress 134 The War and Its Consequences 135 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “Cultural Cross-Dressing in Eighteenth-Century Portraits” 136 Pontiac’s Rebellion and the Proclamation of
1763 138 The Sugar and Stamp Acts, 1763–1765 140
Grenville’s Sugar Act 140 The Stamp Act 141 Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics 142 Liberty and Property 144
The Townshend Acts and Economic Retaliation, 1767–1770 145 The Townshend Duties 145 Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty 146 Military Occupation and “Massacre” in Boston 147
The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts, 1770–1774 149 The Calm before the Storm 149 Tea in Boston Harbor 150 The Coercive Acts 151 Beyond Boston: Rural New England 152 The First Continental Congress 152
Domestic Insurrections, 1774–1775 153 Lexington and Concord 153 Rebelling against Slavery 155
Conclusion: The Long Road to Revolution 156
CHAPTER REVIEW 157 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The New Nation Takes Form, 1789–1800 216
OPENING VIGNETTE: Brilliant and brash, Alexander Hamilton becomes a polarizing figure in the 1790s 216
The Search for Stability 218 Washington Inaugurates the
Government 219 The Bill of Rights 220 The Republican Wife and Mother 221
Hamilton’s Economic Policies 222 Agriculture, Transportation,
and Banking 222 The Public Debt and Taxes 223 The First Bank of the United States and the
Report on Manufactures 225 The Whiskey Rebellion 226
Conflict on America’s Borders and Beyond 227 Creeks in the Southwest 228 Ohio Indians in the Northwest 229 France and Britain 231 The Haitian Revolution 233 BEYOND AMERICA’S BORDERS: “France, Britain, and Woman’s Rights in the 1790s” 234
Federalists and Republicans 236 The Election of 1796 236 The XYZ Affair 237 The Alien and Sedition Acts 238
Conclusion: Parties Nonetheless 240
CHAPTER REVIEW 241 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
Building a Republic, 1775–1789 188
OPENING VIGNETTE: James Madison comes of age in the midst of revolution 188
The Articles of Confederation 190 Confederation and Taxation 190 The Problem of Western Lands 191 Running the New Government 192
The Sovereign States 193 The State Constitutions 193 Who Are “the People”? 194 Equality and Slavery 195 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Massachusetts Blacks Petition for Freedom and Rights” 196
The Confederation’s Problems 199 The War Debt and the Newburgh Conspiracy 199 The Treaty of Fort Stanwix 200 Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory 202 The Requisition of 1785 and Shays’s Rebellion,
1786–1787 205 The United States Constitution 206
From Annapolis to Philadelphia 207 The Virginia and New Jersey Plans 208 Democracy versus Republicanism 209
Ratification of the Constitution 210 The Federalists 210 The Antifederalists 212 The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York 213
Conclusion: The “Republican Remedy” 214
CHAPTER REVIEW 215 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The Expanding Republic, 1815–1840 272
OPENING VIGNETTE: The Grimké sisters speak out against slavery 272
The Market Revolution 274 Improvements in Transportation 275 Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor 277 Bankers and Lawyers 279 Booms and Busts 279 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners, 1834” 280
The Spread of Democracy 282 Popular Politics and Partisan Identity 282 The Election of 1828 and the Character
Issue 283 Jackson’s Democratic Agenda 284
Jackson Defines the Democratic Party 285 Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears 285 The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification 288 The Bank War and Economic Boom 289
Cultural Shifts, Religion, and Reform 290 The Family and Separate Spheres 291 The Education and Training of Youths 292 The Second Great Awakening 292 The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for
Moral Reform 294 Organizing against Slavery 294
Van Buren’s One-Term Presidency 296 The Politics of Slavery 297 Elections and Panics 297
Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform? 299
CHAPTER REVIEW 301 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
Republicans in Power, 1800–1824 242
OPENING VIGNETTE: The Shawnee chief Tecumseh attempts to forge a pan-Indian confederacy 242
Jefferson’s Presidency 244 Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion 245 The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity 245 Dangers Overseas: The Barbary Wars 247
Opportunities and Challenges in the West 248 The Louisiana Purchase 248 The Lewis and Clark Expedition 249 Osage and Comanche Indians 251 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “Cultural Exchange on the Lewis and Clark Trail” 252
Jefferson, the Madisons, and the War of 1812 254 Impressment and Embargo 254 Dolley Madison and Social Politics 255 Tecumseh and Tippecanoe 255 The War of 1812 256 Washington City Burns: The British Offensive 258
Women’s Status in the Early Republic 259 Women and the Law 260 Women and Church Governance 260 Female Education 261
Monroe and Adams 262 From Property to Democracy 263 The Missouri Compromise 264 The Monroe Doctrine 265 The Election of 1824 267 The Adams Administration 268
Conclusion: Republican Simplicity Becomes Complex 269
CHAPTER REVIEW 271 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The Slave South, 1820–1860 332
OPENING VIGNETTE: Slave Nat Turner leads a revolt to end slavery 332
The Growing Distinctiveness of the South 334 Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire 334 The South in Black and White 336 The Plantation Economy 337 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Defending Slavery” 338
Masters and Mistresses in the Big House 342 Paternalism and Male Honor 342 The Southern Lady and Feminine Virtues 344
Slaves in the Quarter 346 Work 346 Family and Religion 347 Resistance and Rebellion 348
The Plain Folk 349 Plantation-Belt Yeomen 350 Upcountry Yeomen 350 Poor Whites 351 The Culture of the Plain Folk 352
Black and Free: On the Middle Ground 353 Precarious Freedom 353 Achievement despite Restrictions 354
The Politics of Slavery 354 The Democratization of the Political Arena 355 Planter Power 355
Conclusion: A Slave Society 356
CHAPTER REVIEW 357 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The New West and the Free North, 1840–1860 302
OPENING VIGNETTE: With the support of his wife, Abraham Lincoln struggles to survive in antebellum America 302
Economic and Industrial Evolution 304 Agriculture and Land Policy 305 Manufacturing and Mechanization 305 Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature 306 VISUALIZING HISTORY: “The Path of Progress” 308
Free Labor: Promise and Reality 309 The Free-Labor Ideal 310 Economic Inequality 310 Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder 311
The Westward Movement 312 Manifest Destiny 312 Oregon and the Overland Trail 313 The Mormon Exodus 315 The Mexican Borderlands 317
Expansion and the Mexican- American War 319 The Politics of Expansion 319 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 320 Victory in Mexico 323 Golden California 324
Reforming Self and Society 326 The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and
Utopians 326 Woman’s Rights Activists 327 Abolitionists and the American Ideal 328
Conclusion: Free Labor, Free Men 330
CHAPTER REVIEW 331 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The Crucible of War, 1861–1865 386
OPENING VIGNETTE: Runaway slave William Gould enlists in the U.S. Navy 386
“And the War Came” 388 Attack on Fort Sumter 389 The Upper South Chooses Sides 389
The Combatants 391 How They Expected to Win 391 Lincoln and Davis Mobilize 392
Battling It Out, 1861–1862 394 Stalemate in the Eastern Theater 394 Union Victories in the Western Theater 397 The Atlantic Theater 398 International Diplomacy 399
Union and Freedom 400 From Slaves to Contraband 400 From Contraband to Free People 401 The War of Black Liberation 402
The South at War 403 Revolution from Above 403 Hardship Below 405 The Disintegration of Slavery 405 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “Home and Country” 406
The North at War 408 The Government and the Economy 409 Women and Work at Home and at War 409 Politics and Dissent 410
Grinding Out Victory, 1863–1865 411 Vicksburg and Gettysburg 411 Grant Takes Command 412 The Election of 1864 414 The Confederacy Collapses 415
Conclusion: The Second American Revolution 416
CHAPTER REVIEW 417 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
The House Divided, 1846–1861 358
OPENING VIGNETTE: Abolitionist John Brown takes his war against slavery to Harpers Ferry, Virginia 358
The Bitter Fruits of War 360 The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of
Slavery 360 The Election of 1848 362 Debate and Compromise 362
The Sectional Balance Undone 365 The Fugitive Slave Act 365 Uncle Tom’s Cabin 366 The Kansas-Nebraska Act 366 BEYOND AMERICA’S BORDERS: “Filibusters: The Underside of Manifest Destiny” 368
Realignment of the Party System 370 The Old Parties: Whigs and
Democrats 371 The New Parties: Know-Nothings and
Republicans 371 The Election of 1856 373
Freedom under Siege 374 “Bleeding Kansas” 374 The Dred Scott Decision 376 Prairie Republican: Abraham
Lincoln 377 The Lincoln-Douglas Debates 378
The Union Collapses 379 The Aftermath of John Brown’s
Raid 379 Republican Victory in 1860 380 Secession Winter 382
Conclusion: Slavery, Free Labor, and the Failure of Political Compromise 383
CHAPTER REVIEW 385 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
Reconstruction, 1863–1877 418
OPENING VIGNETTE: James T. Rapier emerges in the early 1870s as Alabama’s most prominent black leader 418
Wartime Reconstruction 420 “To Bind Up the Nation’s Wounds” 420 Land and Labor 422 The African American Quest for Autonomy 423 DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: “The Meaning of Freedom“ 424
Presidential Reconstruction 426 Johnson’s Program of Reconciliation 427 White Southern Resistance and Black Codes 427 Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights 428
Congressional Reconstruction 429 The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating
Violence 430 Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule 431 Impeaching a President 432 The Fifteenth Amendment and Women’s
Demands 433 The Struggle in the South 434
Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen 434 Republican Rule 435 White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers 438
Reconstruction Collapses 440 Grant’s Troubled Presidency 440 Northern Resolve Withers 441 White Supremacy Triumphs 442 An Election and a Compromise 445
Conclusion: “A Revolution But Half Accomplished” 446
CHAPTER REVIEW 447 LearningCurve bedfordstmartins.com/roarkconcise
Suggested References A-1
Documents A-7 The Declaration of Independence A-7 The Constitution of the United States A-9 Amendments to the Constitution with Annotations
(including the six unratified amendments) A-16
Facts and Figures: Government, Economy, and Demographics A-32
Presidential Elections A-32 Presidents, Vice Presidents, and Secretaries of State A-37 Supreme Court Justices A-39 Federal Spending and the Economy,
1790–2009 A-41 Population Growth, 1630–2010 A-42 Birthrate, 1820–2007 A-42 Life Expectancy, 1900–2007 A-43 Major Trends in Immigration,
Spot Artifact Credits CR-1 Index I-1 U.S. Political/Geographic and World Maps M-1 About the Authors last book page
Maps, Figures, and Tables
CHAPTER 1 Map 1.1 Continental Drift 6 Spot Map Beringia 6 Map 1.2 Native North American Cultures 9 Spot Map Ancient California Peoples 11 Figure 1.1 Native American Population in North America, about 1492 (Estimated) 18 Map 1.3 Native North Americans about 1500 19
CHAPTER 2 Map 2.1 European Trade Routes and Portuguese Exploration in the Fifteenth
Century 29 Spot Map Columbus’s First Voyage to the New World, 1492–1493 31 Map 2.2 European Exploration in Sixteenth-Century America 33 Spot Map Cortés’s Invasion of Tenochtitlán, 1519–1521 36 Map 2.3 Sixteenth-Century European Colonies in the New World 40 Spot Map Roanoke Settlement, 1587–1590 47
CHAPTER 3 Map 3.1 Chesapeake Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 58 Spot Map Settlement Patterns along the James River 64 Map 3.2 The West Indies and Carolina in the Seventeenth Century 71
CHAPTER 4 Map 4.1 New England Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 81 Figure 4.1 Population of the English North American Colonies in the Seventeenth
Century 88 Map 4.2 Middle Colonies in the Seventeenth Century 91 Map 4.3 American Colonies at the End of the Seventeenth Century 97 Spot Map King Philip’s War, 1675 98
CHAPTER 5 Map 5.1 Europeans and Africans in the Eighteenth Century 105 Map 5.2 Atlantic Trade in the Eighteenth Century 107 Spot Map Patterns of Settlement, 1700–1770 111 Table 5.1 Slave Imports, 1451–1870 113 Map 5.3 The Atlantic Slave Trade 114 Map 5.4 Zones of Empire in Eastern North America 123 Spot Map Spanish Missions in California 124
xxx MAPS, FIGURES, AND TABLES
CHAPTER 6 Map 6.1 European Areas of Influence and the Seven Years’ War, 1754–1763 133 Spot Map Ohio River Valley, 1753 134 Map 6.2 Europe Redraws the Map of North America, 1763 138 Spot Map Pontiac’s Uprising, 1763 139 Map 6.3 Lexington and Concord, April 1775 154
CHAPTER 7 Spot Map Battle of Bunker Hill, 1775 161 Map 7.1 The War in the North, 1775–1778 167 Map 7.2 Loyalist Strength and Rebel Support 170 Spot Map Battle of Saratoga, 1777 176 Map 7.3 The Indian War in the West, 1777–1782 179 Map 7.4 The War in the South, 1780–1781 182 Spot Map Siege of Yorktown, 1781 184
CHAPTER 8 Map 8.1 Cession of Western Lands, 1782–1802 192 Spot Map Legal Changes to Slavery, 1777–1804 199 Spot Map Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1784 202 Spot Map Shays’s Rebellion, 1786–1787 206 Map 8.2 Ratification of the Constitution, 1788–1790 211
CHAPTER 9 Spot Map Major Roads in the 1790s 222 Map 9.1 Travel Times from New York City in 1800 223 Map 9.2 Western Expansion and Indian Land Cessions to 1810 230 Spot Map Haitian Revolution, 1791–1804 233
CHAPTER 10 Map 10.1 Jefferson’s Expeditions in the West, 1804–1806 250 Spot Map The Chesapeake Incident, June 22, 1807 254 Spot Map Battle of Tippecanoe, 1811 256 Map 10.2 The War of 1812 257 Map 10.3 The Missouri Compromise, 1820 266 Map 10.4 The Election of 1824 268
CHAPTER 11 Map 11.1 Routes of Transportation in 1840 275 Spot Map Cotton Textile Industry, ca. 1840 277 Table 11.1 The Growth of Newspapers, 1820–1840 283 Map 11.2 The Election of 1828 284 Map 11.3 Indian Removal and the Trail of Tears 287 Figure 11.1 Western Land Sales, 1810–1860 290
MAPS, FIGURES, AND TABLES xxxi
CHAPTER 12 Map 12.1 Railroads in 1860 307 Figure 12.1 Antebellum Immigration, 1840–1860 311 Spot Map Plains Indians and Trails West in the 1840s and 1850s 313 Map 12.2 Major Trails West 314 Map 12.3 Texas and Mexico in the 1830s 317 Map 12.4 The Mexican-American War, 1846–1848 321 Map 12.5 Territorial Expansion by 1860 324
CHAPTER 13 Spot Map The Upper and Lower South 335 Map 13.1 Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire: 1820 and 1860 335 Map 13.2 The Agricultural Economy of the South, 1860 340 Spot Map Immigrants as a Percentage of State Populations, 1860 341 Spot Map The Cotton Belt 350 Spot Map Upcountry of the South 350
CHAPTER 14 Spot Map Mexican Cession, 1848 361 Map 14.1 The Election of 1848 362 Map 14.2 The Compromise of 1850 364 Spot Map Gadsden Purchase, 1853 367 Map 14.3 The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 370 Map 14.4 Political Realignment, 1848–1860 372 Spot Map “Bleeding Kansas,” 1850s 375 Map 14.5 The Election of 1860 382 Spot Map Secession of the Lower South, December 1860–February 1861 383
CHAPTER 15 Map 15.1 Secession, 1860–1861 390 Figure 15.1 Resources of the Union and Confederacy 392 Map 15.2 The Civil War, 1861–1862 395 Spot Map Peninsula Campaign, 1862 396 Spot Map Battle of Glorieta Pass, 1862 397 Table 15.1 Major Battles of the Civil War, 1861–1862 399 Spot Map Vicksburg Campaign, 1863 411 Spot Map Battle of Gettysburg, July 1–3, 1863 412 Map 15.3 The Civil War, 1863–1865 413 Table 15.2 Major Battles of the Civil War, 1863–1865 415
CHAPTER 16 Spot Map Reconstruction Military Districts 432 Figure 16.1 Southern Congressional Delegations, 1865–1877 436 Map 16.1 A Southern Plantation in 1860 and 1881 439 Map 16.2 The Election of 1868 440 Map 16.3 The Reconstruction of the South 444 Map 16.4 The Election of 1876 445
American Tobacco and European Consumers 60 France, Britain, and Woman’s Rights in the 1790s 234 Filibusters: The Underside of Manifest Destiny 368
Justifying Conquest 42 Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts 92 Spanish Priests Report on California Missions 126 Families Divide over the Revolution 172 Massachusetts Blacks Petition for Freedom and Rights 196 Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners, 1834 280 Defending Slavery 338 Home and Country 406 The Meaning of Freedom 424
Daily Life in Chaco Canyon 14 Cultural Cross-Dressing in Eighteenth-Century Portraits 136 Cultural Exchange on the Lewis and Clark Trail 252 The Path of Progress 308
Documenting the American Promise
Beyond America’s Borders
The American Promise A Concise History
Volume 1: To 1877
Nobody today knows his name. But almost a thousand years ago, more than four hundred years before Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere, many ancient Americans celebrated this man — let’s call him Sun Falcon. They buried Sun Falcon during elaborate rituals at Cahokia, the largest residential and ceremonial site in ancient North America, the giant landmass north of present-day Mexico. Located near the eastern shore of the Mississippi River in what is now southwestern Illinois, Cahokia stood at the spiritual and political center of the world of more than
20,000 ancient Americans who lived there and nearby. The way Cahokians buried Sun Falcon suggests that he was a very important person who represented spiritual and political authority.
What we know about Sun Falcon and the Cahokians who buried him has been discovered by archaeologists — scientists
who study artifacts, material objects left behind by ancient peoples. Cahokia attracted the attention of archaeologists because of the hundreds of earthen mounds that ancient
Ancient America, Before 1492
MISSISSIPPIAN WOODEN MASK Sometime between AD 1200 and 1350, a Native American among the
Mississippian people in what is now central Illinois fashioned this mask from red cedar. Influenced by the culture of Cahokia, the mask was
probably used in rituals to depict the face of both worldly and supernatural power. The haunting visage evokes the long history of ancient Americans and
their impressive achievements. Photograph: © 2002 John Bigelow Taylor, www.kubaba.com. Illinois State Museum, Springfield, Cat. No. 273.
Archaeology and History (pp. 4–5)
The First Americans (pp. 5–8)
Archaic Hunters and Gatherers (pp. 8–12)
Agricultural Settlements and Chiefdoms (pp. 12–17)
Native Americans in the 1490s (pp. 17–21)
The Mexica: A Mesoamerican Culture (pp. 21–23)
Conclusion: The World of Ancient Americans (pp. 23–24)