Essay 3

Table of Contents


1- write a 2 page Rhetorical Analysis Essay after reading article

2-look at the Rhetorical Devices Chart for Speech Analysis and write your thesis. The thesis is gonna be about the: purpose, pathos, logos of the article.

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(An example of the thesis is ” In Nelson Mandela’s “Poverty Speech,” Mandela created an effective speech through repeating the word “poverty,” speaking to a global audience, and using emotional appeals to convince his listeners that poverty needs to end. “)

3-One body paragraph covers purpose, the other covers pathos, and the other one covers logos.

4- Write a conclusion.

Rhetorical Devices and Speech Analysis


to analyze the effectiveness of a speech based on the Rhetorical devices used by a speaker

create a sentence outline analyzing 3 Rhetorical devices

write a 5 paragraph essay analyzing the Rhetorical devices

Analyzing a Speech

A speech can be made more effective if the speaker considers using several literary devices.

To help you understand how to write an Analytical Essay about a speech, this presentation will consider a speech given by Nelson Mandela in London as part of the campaign to end poverty in the developing world.


Rhetorical Devices








Rhetorical Device – Audience

Who you are writing for

Helps you make decisions about what information to use, your tone and your language

Example 1: Mandela addresses a global audience. He makes a call to action to the world leaders to focus on poverty at their July meeting in Scotland. “I say to all those leaders: do not look the other way; do not hesitate.”

Example 2: Mandela calls people of the world to take action against poverty because it would “be a crime against humanity, against which I ask all humanity now to rise up.”

Rhetorical Device – Purpose

Why the author wrote

Goal is to Persuade, Inform and Explain


Example 1: Mandela states that he was invited to speak by The Campaign to Make Poverty History and that it represents “such a noble cause.”

Example 2: Mandela’s purpose is to persuade the audience to take action to end poverty. He states that “as long as poverty, injustice and gross inequality persist in our world, none of us can truly rest.”

Rhetorical Device – Repetition

Repeat a few words or phrases a few times

Make an idea clearer

Emphasize significance of the phrase

Example: At the end of his speech, Mandela repeats two sentences that are very similar to reinforce his point about ending poverty. He says, “Make poverty History in 2005. Make History in 2005.” The repeated pattern of these similar sentences reminds the listener the main point of his speech and reinforces his persuasive message about ending poverty.

Rhetorical Device – Imagery

Author’s use of words and phrases to create “mental images” for the reader

Helps the reader to visualize more realistically the author’s writings

Uses figures of speech like simile, metaphor, personification, onomatopoeia

Example: Mandela compares poverty to prison. “Millions of people in the world’s poorest countries remain imprisoned, enslaved, in chains. They are trapped in the prison of poverty.” These sentences help the listener visualize the harshness of poverty.

Rhetorical Device – Ethos



Example: Mandela establishes credibility with the audience by referring to a shared past experience. He reminds the audience how a similar crowd “stood in solidarity with us, just a few yards from this spot” during the movement against apartheid.

Rhetorical Device – Logos


Example: Mandela suggests several steps for developing nations to take to help end poverty. “The first is ensuring trade justice.” He continues to list two other steps that will be needed for ending poverty.

Rhetorical Device – Pathos

Emotional appeal

Example: Mandela ends his speech with an appeal to the audience’s sense of pride in taking a stand against poverty. He states, “Then we can all stand with our heads held high.”

Complete the Rhetorical Devices Chart

DeviceMandela SpeechSpeech by
Audience           global audience “I say to all those leaders: do not look the other way; do not hesitate.” 

Now you are ready to view/read the speech by Mandela.

In the assignment directions, you will find a file called the Rhetorical Devices Chart

As you watch/read, fill in the Mandela Speech column with examples for each rhetorical device. Include at least one quote for your examples.

Below is an example of the chart with the first device “audience” completed.

The far right column called “Speech by” will be used in a future assignment.

Rhetorical Devices Chart for Speech Analysis

Source Information: American Rhetoric

Title of Speech: A Whisper of AIDS Republican National Convention Address

Speaker: Mary Fisher

Event: Republican National Convention Address

Where speech was delivered: Huston, Texas

Date: 19 August 1992


DeviceExample 1Example 2
AudienceMary Fisher addresses a global audience. She calls all the American people and officials as she says: “I stand before you and before the nation gladly”Mary Fisher wants everybody to recognize that HIV is a real threat to American people and despite all that has been done, it’s still growing. She says: “In the context of an election year, I ask you, here in this great hall, or listening in the quiet of your home, to recognize that AIDS virus is not a political creature.,
PurposeMary Fisher states that curing HIV should be taken more seriously because “This is not a distant threat. It is a present danger. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among women and children. Largely unknown a decade ago, AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult Americans today”Mary Fisher’s purpose is to educate people that those with HIV shouldn’t be outcast from the society because “they don’t benefit from being isolated or treated as outcasts. Each of them is exactly what God made: a person; not evil, deserving of our judgment; not victims, longing for our pity — people, ready for support and worthy of compassion.”
RepetitionAt the end of his speech, Mary Fisher repeats two sentences that are very similar to emphasize that she would not stop fighting no matter how much society doesn’t want to change. In the first sentence she says” I will not give in” and in the second sentence she says: I will not rest, Max, until I have done all I can to make your world safe.”Mary Fisher wants to persuade her listeners that America can be in great danger if they don’t take action against HIV and they should be aware that no one is immune against HIV no matter the race or religion.In the first sentence she says:” If you believe you are safe, you are at risk” and in the second sentence she says:” we are a nation at risk.”
ImageryAccording to the article: “Because people with HIV have not entered some alien state of being. They are human.” Mary fisher compares HIV patient to aliens to create a mental image for the reader, she explains that those with HIV aren’t so different from other people.Mary Fisher compares HIV to a killer. “If you do not see this killer stalking your children, look again. There is no family or community, no race or religion, no place left in America that is safe.” The writer is trying to help the reader to visualize how dangerous this disease is.
EthosMary Fisher establishes credibility with her audience by referring to the fact that even the President and Mrs. Bush support her and believe in her viewpoint. “The President and Mrs. Bush have embraced me and my family in memorable ways. In the place of judgment, they have shown affection. In difficult moments, they have raised our spirits.”Mary Fisher tries to convince her audience by sharing her own story and revealing that she has HIV herself.” I would never have asked to be HIV positive, but I believe that in all things there is a purpose”
LogosMary Fisher uses statistic as her evidence to show facts and logic. She states:” Americans are dead or dying. A million more are infected. Worldwide, forty million, sixty million, or a hundred million infections will be counted in the coming few years.”Mary fisher tries to convince her audience by using logical appeal. She persuades her audience based on reasoning. She states:” This is not a distant threat. It is a present danger. The rate of infection is increasing fastest among women and children. Largely unknown a decade ago, AIDS is the third leading killer of young adult Americans today”
PathosMary fisher developed an emotional connection with her audience, she explains that her family don’t blame her for having HIV but rather sympathies and support her. “My 84-year-old father, who has pursued the healing of the nations, will not accept the premise that he cannot heal his daughter. My mother refuses to be broken. She still calls at midnight to tell wonderful jokes that make me laugh. Sisters and friends, and my brother Phillip, whose birthday is today, all have helped carry me over the hardest places. I am blessed, richly and deeply blessed, to have such a family.”Mary Fisher ends her speech with an appeal to her listeners that also suffer from HIV. She asks them to come of the shadows of hiding and take courage to tell others they have HIV. “I ask no more of you than I ask of myself or of my children. To the millions of you who are grieving, who are frightened, who have suffered the ravages of AIDS firsthand: Have courage, and you will find support. To the millions who are strong, I issue the plea: Set aside prejudice and politics to make room for compassion and sound policy.”

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