Criminology Assignment 1 Short
The purpose of this short essay is for students to demonstrate critical thinking skills when it comes to analyzing Rational Choice Theory. Specifically, I want to gauge how well you understand: a) the underlying assumptions of rational choice theory; b) how to apply the underlying assumptions of rational choice theory to specific crime types; and c) how deterrence theory fits within rational choice theory.
There are three parts to this short essay. The first part calls for students to make an argument regarding the rationality of crime. The second part calls for students to use examples of specific crime types to support their argument concerning the rationality of crime. The last part asks students to explain the effects of deterrence as it relates to your argument concerning the rationality of crime.
To summarize, these are the elements you need to address in your essay:
1) Make an argument stating whether or not you feel criminal activity is rational.
2) Identify and explain which crime types support your argument regarding the relationship between rationality and crime.
3) Based on your argument regarding the relationship between rationality and crime, describe how effective deterrence would be (or would not be) for reducing crime and why?
Your short essay must be double-spaced with 12-point font and no longer than 3 pages.
Criminological Theories Choice Theory (Neoclassical)
1760s to Present
Criminals weigh the costs and benefits and make a conscious, rational choice to commit crime.
General Deterrence; Specific Deterrence; Routine Activities
Rational choice; offense- and offender-specific; just desserts; situational crime prevention; deterrence incapacitation
Biosocial Theories (Sociobiology)
Cesare Lombroso; Edward O. Wilson
1870s to Present
The basic determinants of criminal behavior are biologically based and inher- ited. These include chemical, neurological and genetic conditions.
Biochemical Theory; Neurolog- ical Theory; Genetic Theory; Evolutionary Theory; Arousal Theory; Attachment theory
Diet and crime; metabolism; hormonal influences; PMS; neurophysiology; ADHD; genetics
Sigmund Freud; Albert Bandura; Jean Piaget; Lawrence Kohlberg
1920s to Present
Abnormal personality and psychological traits are the key determinant of anti-social behavior. There is a link between mental illness, personality disorders, and crime.
Psychodynamic Theory; Behavioral Theory; Social Learning Theory; Cognitive Theory; Moral Development Theory
Id, ego, superego; disorders; behavior modeling; infor- mation processing; antiso- cial personality; intelligence; moral development; nature versus nurture
Edwin Sutherland; Travis Hirschi; Edwin Lemert; Howard Becker
1930s to Present
Criminal behavior is a function of the interaction between individuals and society; criminality occurs as a result of group interaction and the socialization process.
Social Learning Theory; Differential Association Theory; Neutralization Theory; Social Control Theory; Labeling Theory; Social Reaction Theory
Socialization; peer relations; family relations; differential association; techniques of neutralization; self-concept; social bond; stigma; retro- spective reading; primary and secondary deviance
Social Process Theory
Clifford R. Shaw & Henry D. McKay; Walter Miller; Albert Cohen; Richard Cloward & Lloyd Ohlin
1920s to Present
Social and economic forces are the key determinants of criminal behavior patterns. Crime is the result of an individual’s location within the structure of society.
Social Disorganization Theory; Strain Theory; Anomie Theory; Institutional Anomie; General Strain Theory (GST); Cultural Deviance Theory; Theory of Delinquent Subcultures; Theory of Differential Opportunity
Poverty; transitional neighbor- hoods; concentric zones; subcul- ture; cultural transmission; social ecology; collective efficacy; relative deprivation; anomie; conduct norms; focal concerns; differential opportunity
Life Course Latent Trait
Multifactor Theory Sheldon & Eleanor Glueck; John Laub & Robert Sampson
1930s to Present
As people go through the life course, social and personal traits undergo change and influence behavior.
Social Development Model; Interactional Theory; General Theory of Crime and Delin- quency; Age-Graded Theory
Problem behavior syndrome; pathways to crime; turning points; social capital
James Q. Wilson & Richard Herrnstein; Travis Hirschi & Michael Gottfredson
1980s to Present
A master trait that controls human development inter- acts with criminal opportunity.
General Theory of Crime (GTC); Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory; Differential Coercion Theory; Control Balance Theory
Impulsive personality; low self-control; latent traits
Willem Bonger; Ralf Dahrendorf; George Vold; Karl Marx
1960s to Present
Inequality between social classes (groups) results in condi- tions that empower the wealthy and disenfranchise the less fortunate; these are the root causes of crime. It is the ongo- ing struggle for power, control, and material well-being that produces crime.
Critical Criminology; Instru- mental Theory; Structural Theory; Left-Realism; Critical Feminism Power-Control Theory; Peacemaking Criminology
Power; social conflict; marginal- ization; capitalism; social class; globalization; left realism; exploitation; patriarchy; restor- ative justice; social justice; rein- tegrative shaming; restoration
Criminology The Core
LARRY J. SIEGEL University of Massachusetts, Lowell
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This book is dedicated to my grandchildren:
The brilliant and handsome Jack Macy
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The gorgeous princess and ballet dancer,
Kayla Jean Macy
LARRY J. SIEGEL was born in the Bronx in 1947. While living on Jerome Avenue and attending City College of New York in the 1960s, he was swept
up in the social and political currents of the time. He became intrigued with
the influence contemporary culture had on individual behavior: Did people
shape society or did society shape people? He applied his interest in social
forces and human behavior to the study of crime and justice. After graduating
CCNY, he attended the newly opened program in criminal justice at the State
University of New York at Albany, earning both his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees
there. After completing his graduate work, Dr. Siegel began his teaching career
at Northeastern University, where he was a faculty member for nine years.
After leaving Northeastern, he held teaching positions at the University of
Nebraska–Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. He is currently
a professor at the University of Massachusetts–Lowell. Dr. Siegel has written
extensively in the area of crime and justice, including books on juvenile law,
delinquency, criminology, criminal justice, and criminal procedure. He is a
court certified expert on police conduct and has testified in numerous legal
cases. The father of four and grandfather of three, Larry Siegel and his wife,
Terry, now reside in Bedford, New Hampshire, with their two dogs, Watson
About the Author
The author with his wife, Therese, in Italy
Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology 3
Chapter 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 27
Chapter 3 Victims and Victimization 59
Part 1 Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology
Part 2 Theories of Crime Causation Chapter 4 Choice Theory: Because They Want To 83
Chapter 5 Trait Theory 107
Chapter 6 Social Structure Theory 135
Chapter 7 Social Process Theories 167
Chapter 8 Social Conflict and Critical Criminology 197
Chapter 9 Developmental Theories: Life-Course and Latent Trait 225
Part 3 Crime Typologies Chapter 10 Violent Crime: Personal and Political 253
Chapter 11 Property Crimes 293
Chapter 12 Enterprise Crime: White-Collar Crime, Cyber Crime, and Organized Crime 315
Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes 349
Part 4 The Criminal Justice System Chapter 14 The Criminal Justice System 381
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Crime and Criminology 3 What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise 4
Criminal Statistics/Crime Measurement 4
Sociology of Law / Law and Society / Socio-Legal Studies 5
Developing Theories of Crime Causation 5
Policy and Practice in Criminology Should Sex Offenders Be Registered? 6
Understanding and Describing Criminal Behavior 7
Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections 7
A Brief History of Criminology 9
Classical Criminology 9
Positivist Criminology 10
Sociological Criminology 11
Confl ict Criminology 12
Developmental Criminology 12
Contemporary Criminology 13
Deviant or Criminal? How Criminologists Defi ne Crime 14
Profiles in Crime Kiddie Porn 15 Becoming Deviant 15
The Concept of Crime 16
Consensus View of Crime 17
Confl ict View of Crime 17
Interactionist View of Crime 17
A Defi nition of Crime 17
Crime and the Criminal Law 18
Common Law 18
Contemporary Criminal Law 19
The Evolution of Criminal Law 20
Ethical Issues in Criminology 21
Thinking Like a Criminologist 22
Key Terms 24
Critical Thinking Questions 24
The Nature and Extent of Crime 27 Primary Sources of Crime Data 28
Offi cial Records: The Uniform Crime Report 28
NIBRS: The Future of the Uniform Crime Report 31
Survey Research 31
Profiles in Crime A Pain in the Glass 32 The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 32
Self-Report Surveys 34
Evaluating Crime Data 36
Crime Trends 37
Trends in Offi cially Recorded Crime 37
Trends in Victimization 38
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology International Crime Trends 40
What the Future Holds 41
Crime Patterns 43
The Ecology of Crime 43
Part 1 Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology
au l S
Current Issues in Crime Explaining Trends in Crime Rates 44
Use of Firearms 46
Social Class, Socioeconomic Conditions, and Crime 48
Age and Crime 48
Gender and Crime 49
Race and Crime 51
Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers 53
What Causes Chronicity? 54
Implications of the Chronic Offender Concept 54
Thinking Like a Criminologist 55
Key Terms 56
Critical Thinking Questions 57
Victims and Victimization 59 The Victim’s Role 60
Victimization’s Toll on Society 60
Economic Loss 60
Blaming the Victim 61
Long-Term Stress 61
Antisocial Behavior 63
The Nature of Victimization 63
The Social Ecology of Victimization 63
The Victim’s Household 64
Victim Characteristics 64
Victims and Their Criminals 67
Theories of Victimization 68
Victim Precipitation Theory 68
Lifestyle Theories 69
Deviant Place Theory 70
Current Issues in Crime Escalation or Desistance? The Effect of Victimization on Criminal Careers 71
Routine Activities Theory 71
Caring for the Victim 74
Victim Service Programs 75
Victims’ Rights 77
Profiles in Crime Jesse Timmendequas and Megan’s Law 78
Thinking Like a Criminologist 79
Key Terms 80
Critical Thinking Questions 81
Part 2 Theories of Crime Causation
Choice Theory: Because They Want To 83 Development of Rational Choice Theory 84
Concepts of Rational Choice 85
Evaluating the Risks of Crime 85
Offense- and Offender-Specifi c Crime 86
Structuring Criminality 86
Structuring Crime 87
Profiles in Crime Looting the Public Treasury 88
Is Crime Rational? 89
Is Theft Rational? 89
Is Drug Use Rational? 89
Can Violence Be Rational? 90
Why Do People Commit Crime? 91
Controlling Crime 92
Situational Crime Prevention 92
Crime Prevention Strategies 92
Policy and Practice in Criminology Reducing Crime through Surveillance 94
The Costs and Benefi ts of Situational Crime Prevention 95
General Deterrence 95
Certainty of Punishment 96
Severity of Punishment 96
Swiftness of Punishment 97
Critique of General Deterrence 97
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Current Issues in Crime Does Availability of the Death Penalty Discourage Murder? 98
Specifi c Deterrence 99
Can Incapacitation Reduce Crime? 101
Policy Implications of Choice Theory 103
Thinking Like a Criminologist 104
Key Terms 105
Critical Thinking Questions 105
Trait Theory 107 Development of Trait Theory 108
Contemporary Trait Theory 109
Biological Trait Theories 109
Biochemical Conditions and Crime 110
Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime 113
Current Issues in Crime Teenage Behavior: Is It the Brain? 114
Genetics and Crime 116
Evolutionary Views of Crime 118
Evaluation of the Biological Branch of Trait Theory 118
The Psychological Trait View 119
Psychological Theories and Crime 120
The Psychodynamic Perspective 120
The Behavioral Perspective: Social Learning Theory 121
Current Issues in Crime Violent Media/Violent Behavior? 122
Cognitive Theory 124
Personality and Crime 125
Psychopathic Personality 126
Intelligence and Crime 127
Mental Disorders and Crime 128
Social Policy and Trait Theory 129
Profi les in Crime Andrea Yates 130
Thinking Like a Criminologist 131
Key Terms 133
Critical Thinking Questions 133
Social Structure Theory 135 Economic Structure and Crime 136
Problems of the Lower Class 137
Child Poverty 137
Minority Group Poverty 137
Poverty and Crime 139
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology More Than Just Race 140
Social Structure Theories 140
Social Disorganization Theory 143
The Work of Shaw and McKay 144
The Social Ecology School 145
Strain Theories 151
Theory of Anomie 151
Institutional Anomie Theory 153
Relative Deprivation Theory 153
General Strain Theory (GST) 154
Cultural Deviance Theory 157
Theory of Delinquent Subcultures 158
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology The Code of the Streets 159
Theory of Differential Opportunity 161
Social Structure Theory and Public Policy 162
Thinking Like a Criminologist 163
Key Terms 164
Critical Thinking Questions 165
Social Process Theories 167 Institutions of Socialization 169
Family Relations 169
Educational Experience 170
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Current Issues in Crime Family Functioning and Crime 171
Peer Relations 172
Religion and Belief 172
Social Learning Theories 173
Differential Association Theory 173
Neutralization Theory 177
Evaluating Learning Theories 179
Social Control Theory 180
Self-Concept and Crime 180
Hirschi’s Social Control Theory 180
Testing Social Control Theory: Supportive Research 182
Critiquing Social Control Theory 183
Profiles in Crime Alpha Dog 184
Social Reaction (Labeling) Theory 185
Consequences of Labeling 186
Primary and Secondary Deviance 187
Crime and Labeling 188
Differential Enforcement 189
Research on Social Reaction Theory 189
Is Labeling Theory Valid? 191
Social Process Theory and Public Policy 191
Policy and Practice in Criminology Head Start 192
Thinking Like a Criminologist 194
Key Terms 195
Critical Thinking Questions 195
Social Conflict and Critical Criminology 197 Confl ict and Crime 198
Origins of Critical Criminology 198
Contemporary Critical Criminology 200
How Critical Criminologists Defi ne Crime 201
State (Organized) Crime 202
How Critical Criminologists View the Cause of Crime 204
Current Issues in Crime Torturing Terror Suspects 205
Instrumental Vs. Structural Theory 207
Instrumental Theory 207
Structural Theory 208
Research on Critical Criminology 208
Profiles in Crime Mumia Abu-Jamal 210
Critique of Critical Criminology 211
Left Realism 211
Crime Protection 212
Critical Feminist Theory 212
Patriarchy and Crime 213
Power–Control Theory 214
Peacemaking Criminology 215
Critical Theory and Public Policy 216
The Concept of Restorative Justice 217
The Process of Restoration 218
Restoration Programs 218
Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) 219
The Challenge of Restorative Justice 220
Policy and Practice in Criminology Victim Offender Reconciliation in Denver, Colorado 221
Thinking Like a Criminologist 222
Key Terms 223
Critical Thinking Questions 223
Developmental Theories: Life- Course and Latent Trait 225 Foundations of Developmental Theory 226
Life-Course Fundamentals 227
Problem Behavior Syndrome 228
Pathways to Crime 229
Offense Specialization/Generalization 230
Age of Onset/Continuity of Crime 230
Offending Patterns and Trends 230
Profiles in Crime The Xbox Killers 231
Theories of the Criminal Life Course 232
Sampson and Laub’s Age-Graded Theory 233
Current Issues in Crime Love, Sex, Marriage, and Crime 236
Latent Trait Theories 236
Onset and Persistence of Crime 237
Current Issues in Crime Tracking Down The 500 Delinquent Boys 238
Crime and Human Nature 239
Part 3 Crime Typologies
General Theory of Crime 241
Analyzing the General Theory of Crime 243
Critiquing the General Theory of Crime 244
Current Issues in Crime Self-Control and Drug Dealing 247
Public Policy Implications of Developmental Theory 248
Thinking Like a Criminologist 249
Key Terms 250
Critical Thinking Questions 251
Violent Crime: Personal and Political 253 Causes of Violence 254
Personal Traits 255
Ineffective Families 255
Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct 255
Exposure to Violence 256
Substance Abuse 256
Firearm Availability 257
Cultural Values 257
National Values 257
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology The Honor Killing of Women and Girls 258
Forcible Rape 259
Incidence of Rape 260
Types of Rapists 260
Types of Rape 261
Causes of Rape 262
Rape and the Law 263
Murder and Homicide 265
Degrees of Murder 265
Nature and Extent of Murder 266
Murderous Relations 267
Serial Killers, Mass Murderers, and Spree Killers 270
Assault and Battery 272
Nature and Extent of Assault 272
Domestic Violence: Assault in the Home 272
The Armed Robber 276
Acquaintance Robbery 276
Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence 277
Hate Crimes 277
Workplace Violence 280
Political Violence and Terrorism 281
Contemporary Forms of Terrorism 281
What Motivates Terrorists and Terrorism? 285
Profiles in Crime Azzam the American 286
Thinking Like A Criminologist 287 Responses to Political Violence and Terrorism 288
Key Terms 290
Critical Thinking Questions 290
Property Crimes 293 History of Theft 294
Contemporary Thieves 295
Occasional Thieves 295
Professional Thieves 295
Common Larceny/Theft Offenses 297
Profiles in Crime Invasion of the Body Snatchers 298
Credit Card Theft 300
Auto Theft 300
Bad Checks 303
False Pretenses/Fraud 303
Receiving and Fencing Stolen Property 305
Embezzlement 305© A
Current Issues in Crime Confessions of a Dying Thief 306
Nature and Extent of Burglary 307
Types of Burglaries 307
Careers in Burglary 309
Thinking Like a Criminologist 311
Key Terms 312
Critical Thinking Questions 313
Enterprise Crime: White- Collar Crime, Cyber Crime, and Organized Crime 315 Enterprise Crime 316
Crimes of Business Enterprise 316
White-Collar Crime 316
Components of White-Collar Crime 317
White-Collar Fraud 317
Profiles in Crime Crime of the Century: Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC 320
Current Issues in Crime The Subprime Mortgage Scandal 321
Infl uence Peddling 322
Embezzlement and Employee Fraud 323
Client Fraud 324
Corporate Crime 326
Theories of White-Collar Crime 329
Rationalization/Neutralization View 329
Corporate Culture View 330
Self-Control View 330
White-Collar Crime and Law Enforcement Systems 330
Controlling White-Collar Crime 331
Cyber Crime 332
Cyber Theft: Cyber Crimes for Profi t 334
Computer Fraud 334
Pornography and Prostitution 334
Denial-of-Service Attack 335
Distributing Dangerous Drugs 335
Illegal Copyright Infringement 335
Internet Securities Fraud 336
Identity Theft 336
Etailing Fraud 336
Cyber Vandalism: Cyber Crime with Malicious Intent 337
Cyber Stalking 337
Cyber Bullying 337
Cyber Terrorism: Cyber Crime with Political Motives 338
Extent and Costs of Cyber Crime 338
Controlling Cyber Crime 339
What the Future Holds 339
Organized Crime 339
Characteristics of Organized Crime 340
Activities of Organized Crime 341
The Concept of Organized Crime 341
Contemporary Organized Crime Groups 341
Controlling Organized Crime 342
The Future of Organized Crime 343
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology Russian Organized Crime 344
Thinking Like a Criminologist 346
Key Terms 347
Critical Thinking Questions 347
Public Order Crimes 349 Law and Morality 350
Criminal or Immoral? 351
Moral Crusaders and Moral Crusades 351
Sex-Related Offenses 353
Profiles in Crime The Jessica Lunsford Murder Case 355
Incidence of Prostitution 356
International Sex Trade 357
Types of Prostitutes 357
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology International Human Traffi cking 358
Becoming a Prostitute 360
Controlling Prostitution 360
Legalize Prostitution? 361
Is Pornography Harmful? 362
Does Pornography Cause Violence? 363
Pornography and the Law 363
Can Pornography Be Controlled? 365
Substance Abuse 365
When Did Drug Use Begin? 366
Alcohol and Its Prohibition 366
Extent of Substance Abuse 367
Causes of Substance Abuse 368
Drugs and Crime 370
Drugs and the Law 371
Drug Control Strategies 372
Legalization of Drugs 376
Thinking Like a Criminologist 377
Key Terms 379
Critical Thinking Questions 379
Part 4 The Criminal Justice System
The Criminal Justice System 381 What is the Criminal Justice System? 382
Police and Law Enforcement 384
The Criminal Court System 385
Profiles in Crime Canine Cruelty 390 Corrections 390
Policy and Practice in Criminology Problems of Reentry 392
The Process of Justice 394
Discretion and the Criminal Justice Process 398
Courtroom Work Group 400
Criminal Justice and the Rule of Law 400
Concepts of Justice 401
Crime Control Model 401
Due Process Model 402
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology Does Racial Bias Exist in Criminal Sentencing? 404
Rehabilitation Model 404
Equal Justice Model 406
Nonintervention Model 407
Restorative Justice Model 408
Concepts of Justice Today 409
Thinking Like a Criminologist 409
Key Terms 411
Critical Thinking Questions 411
Name Index 472
Subject Index 484
. C la
On November 5, 2009, the nation was stunned to hear that a gunman had opened fire in the Soldier Readiness Center at Fort Hood, in Killeen, Texas, killing 13 people and wounding 30 others. As the suspected gunman, Army M ajor Nidal Malik Hasan, exited the building, he was shot in an exchange of gunfire by civilian police officers Ser- geant Kimberly Munley and Sergeant Mark Todd, who had responded to an emergency call. Sergeant Munley, hit three times, was later hailed as a hero for her cool behavior under fire.
A U.S. Army psychiatrist, Hasan had enlisted imme- diately after high school graduation, and he served eight years while attending college at Virginia Tech. After gradu- ation he went on to medical school at the Uniformed Ser- vices University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), all at the expense of the U.S. government. In 2009 he was promoted to major, despite having received poor evaluations.
After the shooting, reports soon surfaced that, far from being gratified by his military and academic success, Hasan was a deeply troubled man. His relatives maintained that he had suffered harassment as a consequence of his Mid- dle Eastern background (Hasan is of Palestinian descent). Family members also claimed he was seeking a discharge from the Army because he had been the target of religious discrimination.
More troubling were reports that military authorities had failed to act despite intelligence showing that Hasan was involved in Islamic radical groups and that he had at- tempted to forge ties with al Qaeda. He had attended the Dar al-Hijrah mosque in Falls Church, Virginia, at the same time that it was frequented by two 9/11 hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Hani Hanjour.
The imam at that time, A nwar al-Awlaki, was a spiritual adviser to the hijackers, and Hasan has been said to have had deep respect for Awlaki’s teachings. Reports circulated that Hasan was highly criti- cal of United States policy in the Middle East and believed that it constituted a war on the Muslim religion. Yet even though the FBI informed the Army about his contacts and statements, no action was taken.
Was Hasan a terrorist or simply a disturbed individual who cracked under stress? He shouted, “Allah Akbar” (“God is the Greatest,”) as he shot his way through the Readiness Center. Is this an indication that he had taken on a role similar to that of a jihadist suicide bomber? There was little indication that Hasan was part of a terror cell or had formal
contacts with terrorist organizations. Can a person acting alone be considered a terrorist? On the other hand, Hasan was a doctor and psychiatrist who was in close contact with mental health professionals. If he was truly disturbed, how is it possible that none of his colleagues, trained in psychol- ogy and psychiatry, noticed his condition? Is this an indica- tion that, rather than being mentally ill, he was a rational decision maker seeking revenge?
Considering such incidents of mass violence as the Fort Hood shootings, it is not surprising that many Americans are concerned about crime and worried about becoming victims of violent crime themselves.
We alter our behav- ior to limit the risk of victimization and question whether legal punishment alone can control criminal offenders. We watch movies about law firms, clients, fugitives, and stone- cold killers. We are shocked when the news media offer graphic accounts of school shootings, police brutality, and sexual assaults.
I, too, have had a life-long interest in crime, law, and justice. Why do people behave the way they do? What causes someone like Major Hasan to kill people he hardly knew? Was his behavior the result of a diseased mind and personality? Or was he a cool, calculating terrorist seeking to undermine the U.S.
military? Could his mur- derous rampage have been predicted and prevented? And what should be done with people who commit horren- dous crimes? Does Hasan deserve to be executed for his misdeeds? And if not, who does? Would executing some- one like Hasan deter others from terrorism? Or might his martyrdom encourage other would-be terrorists to take similar actions?
Goals of this Book For the past 40 years, I have channeled my fascination with issues related to crime and justice into a career as a student and teacher of criminology. My goal in writing this text is to help students share the same enthusiasm for criminology that has sustained me during my teach- ing career.
What could be more important or fascinating than a field of study that deals with such wide-ranging top- ics as the motivation for mass murder, the effects of vio- lent media on young people, drug abuse, and organized crime? C riminology is a dynamic field, changing constantly with the release of major research studies, Supreme Court
r ulings, and g overnmental policy. Its dynamism and diver- sity make it an important and engrossing area of study.
One reason why the study of criminology is so impor- tant is that debates continue over the nature and extent of crime and the causes and prevention of criminality. Some view criminals as society’s victims who are forced to violate the law because of poverty and lack of opportunity. Others view aggressive, antisocial behavior such as the Fort Hood massacre as a product of mental and physical abnormali- ties, present at birth or soon after, that are stable over the life course.
Still another view is that crime is a function of the rational choice of greedy, selfish people who can be deterred from engaging in criminal behavior only by the threat of harsh punishments. It all comes down to this: Why do people do the things they do? How can we explain the intricacies and diversity of human behavior?
Because interest in crime and justice is so great and so timely, this text is designed to review these ongoing is- sues and cover the field of criminology in an organized and comprehensive manner. It is meant as a broad overview of the field, an introduction to whet the reader’s appetite and encourage further and more in-depth exploration.
Several major themes recur throughout the book:
Fact versus Fiction: A main goal of this new edition is to expose some of the myths that cloud people’s thinking about crime and criminals. Because the media often paint a distorted picture of the crime problem in America and focus only on the most sensational cases, it is essential to help students separate the rhetoric from the reality:
Is the crime rate really out of control? Are unemployed people inclined to commit crime? Are immigrants more crime- prone than the native-born? Are high school dropouts more likely to commit crime than graduates? Distinguish- ing what is true from what is merely legend is one of the greatest challenges for instructors in criminology courses. The all-new Fact or Fiction? feature in Criminology:
The Core helps meet that challenge head on. This feature separates myth from reality to disabuse students of incorrect notions, perceptions, and biases. Each chapter opens with a list of Fact or Fiction? statements highlighting common perceptions about crime that are related to the material discussed in the chapter. Then, throughout the text, these topics are revisited so the student will become skilled at distinguish- ing the myths from the reality of crime and criminality.
Competing Viewpoints: There are still on-going debates about the nature and extent of crime and the causes and prevention of criminality. I try to present the various view- points on each topic and then draw a conclusion based on the weight of the existing evidence. Students become familiar with this kind of analysis by examining Concept S ummary boxes that compare different viewpoints, review- ing both their main points and their strengths.
Critical Thinking: It is important for students to think critically about law and justice and to develop a critical
p erspective toward the social institutions and legal institu- tions entrusted with crime control. Throughout the book, students are asked to critique research highlighted in boxed material and to think “outside the box,” as it were. To aid in this task, each chapter ends with a brief section called Thinking Like a Criminologist, which presents a scenario that can be analyzed with the help of material found in the chapter. This section also includes critical thinking ques- tions to guide classroom interaction.
Diversity: Diversity is a key issue in criminology, and this text attempts to integrate issues of racial, ethnic, gen- der, and cultural diversity throughout. The book includes m aterial on international issues, such as the use of the death penalty abroad, and on gender issues, such as the rising rate of female criminality. Boxed features headed Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology enhance the coverage of diversity i ssues. In Chapter 14, for example, there is an in-depth discussion of how race influences sentencing in criminal courts.
Current Theory and Research: Throughout the book, every attempt is made to use the most current research to illus- trate the major trends in criminological research and policy. Most people who use the book have told me that this is one of its strongest features. I have attempted to present current research in a balanced fashion, even though this approach can be frustrating to students.
It is comforting to reach an unequivocal conclusion about an important topic, but some- times that simply is not possible. In an effort to be objective and fair, I have presented each side of important crimino- logical debates in full. Throughout the text, boxed features headed Current Issues in Crime review important research in criminology. For example, in Chapter 12, a box called “The Subprime Mortgage Scandal” helps explain this white-collar crime that nearly brought down the financial system.
Social Policy: There is a focus on social policy through- out the book so that students can see how criminological t heory has been translated into crime prevention programs. Because of this theme, Policy and Practice in Criminology fea- tures are included throughout the text.
These show how criminological ideas and research can be put into a ction. For example, Chapter 4 includes a Policy and Practice in Criminology box called “Reducing Crime through Surveil- lance.” It examines the effectiveness of closed-circuit tele- vision (CCTV) surveillance cameras and improved street l ighting—crime prevention techniques that are currently being used around the world.
My primary goals in writing this text were as follows:
1. To separate the facts from the fi ction about crime and criminality
2. To provide students with a thorough knowledge of crimi- nology and show its diversity and intellectual content
3. To be as thorough and up-to-date as possible 4. To be objective and unbiased
5. To describe current theories, crime types, and methods of social control, and to analyze their strengths and weaknesses
6. To show how criminological thought has infl uenced social policy
In sum, the text has been carefully structured to cover relevant material in a comprehensive, balanced, and objective fashion. Every attempt has been made to present the material in an interesting and contemporary manner. No single political or theoretical position dominates the text; instead, it presents the many diverse views that are contained within criminology and characterize its interdisciplinary nature.
The text includes analysis of the most important scholarly works and scientific research reports, but it also offers a great deal of topical information on recent cases and events, such as the controversial arrest, trial, and conviction of activist cop killer Mumia Abu-Jamal and the fall of financier Bernard Madoff, perpetrator of what was probably the largest scam in the nation’s history.
Topic Areas Criminology: The Core is a thorough introduction to this fas- cinating field and is intended for students in introductory courses in criminology. It is divided into four main sections or topic areas.
Part 1 provides a framework for studying criminology. The first chapter defines the field and discusses its most basic concepts: the definition of crime, the component areas of criminology, the history of criminology, the concept of criminal law, and the ethical issues that arise in this field.
Chapter 2 covers criminological research methods, as well as the nature, extent, and patterns of crime. Chapter 3 is devoted to the concept of victimization, including the nature of victims, theories of victimization, and programs designed to help crime victims.
Part 2 contains six chapters that cover criminological t heory: Why do people behave the way they do? Why do they commit crimes? These views focus on choice (C hapter 4), biological and psychological traits (Chapter 5), social structure and culture (Chapter 6), social process and socialization (Chapter 7), social conflict (Chapter 8), and human development (Chapter 9).
Part 3 is devoted to the major forms of criminal behavior. The chapters in this section cover violent crime (C hapter 10), common theft offenses (Chapter 11), enter- prise crimes (Chapter 12), and public order crimes, includ- ing sex offenses and substance abuse (Chapter 13).
Part 4 consists of one chapter, which covers the criminal justice system (Chapter 14). It provides an overview of the entire justice system, including the process of justice, the major organizations that make up the justice system, and concepts of and perspectives on justice.
What’s New in This Edition? Chapter 1, Crime and Criminology, now opens with a vignette on financier Norman Hsu, who pleaded guilty to ten counts of mail and wire fraud stemming from his role in an invest- ment fraud scheme that affected investors across the United States.
A Policy and Practice in Criminology feature addresses the important issue of whether registration of sex offenders who have served their sentences should be required. There is a review of recent research, including an article by Tatia M. C. Lee, Siu-Ching Chan, and Adrian Raine that sought to determine whether these criminals’ aggressive behavior was a product of their neurological makeup or a social con- dition such as unemployment. A new Profiles in Crime fea- ture focuses on a case involving “kiddie porn.”
Chapter 2, The Nature and Extent of Crime, begins with a v ignette on George Zinkhan, who killed his wife Marie Bruce and two other people as they left a reunion picnic of the Town and Gown Players theater group in Athens, Georgia. A Profiles in Crime feature called “A Pain in the Glass” tells the story of Ronald and Mary Evano, who turned dining in res- taurants into a profitable—albeit illegal—activity via a scam that involved eating glass. The data in the c hapter has been updated with a look at recent crime trends and patterns.
Chapter 3, Victims and Victimization, includes a new s ection on blaming the victim that shows that the suffering e ndured by crime victims does not end when their attacker leaves the scene of the crime. They may suffer further from innuendos or insinuations that they are somehow to blame for what happened.
A new section on crime in schools shows that, unfortunately, educational facilities are the site of a great deal of victimization, because they include a concentrated population of one of the most dangerous seg- ments of society: teenage males. A new section on victim impulsivity explores the idea that some personality traits exhibited by victims may provoke attack.
A Current Issues in Crime feature called “Escalation or Desistance: The Effect of Victimization on Criminal Careers” discusses what happens when a criminal experiences victimization. Does it encour- age further criminal activities? Or might the e xperience of victimization help convince a career criminal to choose a nother career?
Chapter 4, Choice Theory: Because They Want To, begins with the story of the “pump and dump” stock market scheme orchestrated by Michael Pickens, son of one of the nation’s richest men. A new section on evaluating the risks of crime explores how reasoning criminals carefully select targets.
For example, burglars seem to choose targets on the basis of their value, novelty, and resale potential. A Profiles in Crime feature called “Looting the Public Treasury” tells the tale of the corruption of Albert Robles, who served terms as mayor, councilman, and deputy city manager of South Gate, California. A Policy and Practice in Criminology feature called “Reducing Crime through Surveillance” updates the
research of Brandon Welsh and David Farrington, who have been using systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the comparative effectiveness of situational crime prevention techniques. The chapter also examines the deterrent effects of the severity, certainty, and speed of punishment and the way those factors may influence one another.
Research is presented to show that people may be deterred from committing some crimes more readily than from committing others and that the most significant deterrent effects can be achieved in minor crimes and offenses, whereas more serious crimes such as homicide are harder to discourage.
Chapter 5, Trait Theory, opens with the stories of 23-year- old Seung-Hui Cho, who took the lives of 32 people at V irginia Tech, and Steven Kazmierczak, a former student at Northern Illinois University who killed five people when he attacked the campus. There is an analysis of psychologist Bernard Rimland’s 2008 book Dyslogic Syndrome, which disputes the notion that bad or ineffective parenting is to blame for troubled or disobedient children and places the blame on bad diets instead.
A Current Issues in Crime feature titled “Teenage Behavior: Is it the Brain?” reviews new brain research that is shedding light on some of the reasons why so much conflict exists between parents and teens. There is a new section on John Bowlby’s attachment theory, which holds that the ability to form an emotional bond to another person has important psychological implications that persist across the life span. Another Current Issues in Crime feature updates research on violence in the media and its effect on human behavior.
Chapter 6, Social Structure Theory, contains new information on the MS-13 gang, which originally formed as a means of self-protection. (The name is made up of three elements: mara, Spanish for “posse” or gang, salvatruchas, slang for be- ing alert and ready to take action, and 13, a reference to the gang’s beginnings on 13th Street in Los Angeles.) There is updated information on poverty in the United States and its impact on children and minority group members.
Today, almost 25 percent of African Americans and 22 percent of Latino Americans still live in poverty, compared to less than 10 percent of whites. A Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology feature called “More than Just Race” updates the work of William Julius Wilson, one of the nation’s most prominent sociologists, with analysis of his most recent work, More than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City.
Chapter 7, Social Process Theories, begins with the continu- ing saga of Genarlow Wilson, a teenager who was labeled a sexual predator and sent to prison but was later released when those in power decided that he was not really a felon and that the law was not intended to apply to his offense. A Current Issues in Crime feature titled “Family Functioning and Crime” reviews the work of Rand Conger, one of the nation’s leading experts on family life. Recent research on peers and delinquency and the association of young of- fenders with friendship groups is reviewed. New evidence
suggests that most juvenile offenses are committed by in- dividuals acting alone and that group offending, when it does occur, is merely incidental and of little importance in explaining the onset of delinquency, a finding that sup- ports Hirschi’s social bond theory.
Chapter 8, Social Conflict and Critical Criminology, is introduced by a vignette on the Sri Lankan government’s civil rights abuses in its war against the Tamil Tiger rebel group. There is a major new section on state (organized) crime—criminal acts committed by state officials, both elected and appointed, while holding their jobs as government representatives.
Within this section are discussions of political corruption, illegal domestic surveillance, human rights violations, state–corporate crime, and state violence. A Current Issues in Crime feature titled “Torturing Terror Suspects” looks at the use of torture to gain information from suspected political criminals. There are new sections on restorative justice, including A Policy and Practice in Criminology feature on the Victim Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) of Denver, Colorado.
Chapter 9, Developmental Theories: Life-Course and Latent Trait, opens with a vignette on the life and times of the outlaw Jesse James, a true folk hero. Loved by the “little people,” James remained an active outlaw until April 3, 1882. How did his career develop? And can we identify turning points that led him to a life of crime? A Profiles in Crime feature on the Xbox killers covers the career of Troy Victorino and his friends Robert Cannon, Jerone Hunter, and Michael Salas, who committed one of the most brutal crimes in American history.
A Current Issues in Crime feature called “Love, Sex, Marriage, and Crime” delves into the effect of romance on crime. According to developmental theory, romance helps neutralize crime. Does love really work wonders? Another Current Issues in Crime feature, “Self-Control and Drug D ealing,” probes the motives for getting involved in drug dealing, a crime that seems to reflect business enterprise and cunning, rather than impulsivity and lack of self-control.
Chapter 10, Violent Crime: Personal and Political, updates the data on various forms of common-law violence: rape, murder, assault, and robbery. A new Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology feature titled “The Honor Killing of Women and Girls” discusses culture and violence. There is new in- formation on date rape and hate crimes. The material on terrorism has been reorganized and updated.
Chapter 11, Property Crimes, begins with the story of William M. V. Kingsland, an urbane upper-class gentleman, intellectual, and art expert who, after his death, was found to have been a chronic art thief who was able to amass a collection worth millions.
There are new sections on cargo thieves, professional criminals who work in highly organized groups, targeting specific items and employing “specialists” who bring different sets of criminal skills to the table when they hijack cargo shipments. Another section introduces car cloning, a new form of professional auto
theft that involves stealing a luxury car and then substituting the registration of a vehicle of the exact same make and model (and even the same color) as the stolen one. There is an exhibit on check fraud schemes. A new section on third-party fraud discusses schemes in which the “victim” is a third party, such as an insurance company that is forced to pay false claims.
Chapter 12, Enterprise Crime: White-Collar Crime, Cyber Crime, and Organized Crime, begins with a new vignette on an inter- national child pornography ring that originated in Australia and recruited pornographers from all over the world. The chapter now discusses contract frauds that tempt people to sign long-term agreements without informing them that the small print included in the sales contract obligates them to purchase high-priced services they did not really want in the first place.
A new Profiles in Crime feature covers the multibillion-dollar stock market fraud committed by businessman Bernard Madoff, and a Current Issues in Crime feature addresses the subprime mortgage scandal. There is a review of the case of Wayne Cresap, a Louisiana judge who was charged with accepting bribes from individuals who wanted to influence his bail decision making. The section on cyber crime examines the case of Lori Drew, a Missouri woman who perpetrated a MySpace hoax on a teenage neighbor who later committed suicide. The text now discusses the illegal sale of controlled substances, mostly stimulants and depressants, via Internet websites.
Chapter 13, Public Order Crimes, begins with a vignette on the Emperor’s Club and one of its clients, New York’s hard- charging Governor Eliot Spitzer, who was forced to resign when word got out that he was seeing prostitutes. A new section on social harm points out the irony that 500,000 deaths in the United States each year can be linked to the consumption of tobacco and alcohol, substances it is perfectly legal for adults to sell and use.
The material on moral crusades has been expanded, and there is discus- sion of anti smut campaigns that target books considered too “racy” or controversial to be suitable for a public school library. A new section examines the “moral crusade” aimed at preventing the legalization of same-sex marriage. There is a new section on the international sex trade and a Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology feature titled “International Human Trafficking.” Among the new research discussed is a recent longitudinal analysis by Cesar Rebellon and Karen Van Gundy, which found evidence that marijuana users are up to five times more likely than nonusers to escalate their drug abuse and try cocaine and heroin.
Chapter 14, The Criminal Justice System, begins with the story of Savana Redding, a 13-year-old eighth-grade honor stu- dent who was subjected to a strip search after being accused of possessing prescription-strength ibuprofen. The ruling in this case limited the ability of school officials to search stu- dents. The newest data on the size, cost, and scope of crimi- nal justice is presented. A Profiles in Crime titled “Canine Cruelty” shows that NFL quarterback Michael Vick is not
alone in his involvement with dog fighting. Detailed analy- sis of the correctional population is included. Both the jail and prison populations have steadily grown despite a re- duction in the crime rate, probably because the proportion of those convicted who are sentenced to prison has been increasing, along with the lengths of criminal sentences.
Features This text contains various pedagogical elements designed to help students analyze material in greater depth and also link it to other material in the book:
Fact or Fiction? ▶ There are numbers of myths and leg- ends about crime and criminology. And some widely held beliefs have turned out to be false and misleading myths. Can we tell what is fact from what is merely fi ction? At the beginning of each chapter, a set of state- ments appears describing popular beliefs about crime, criminals, law, and justice. Then, throughout the chap- ter, these statements are revisited in order to confi rm the accurate ones and set students straight about the others. For example, many people believe that immi- grants commit a lot of crime. Is that true? Find out in Chapter 2.
Current Issues in Crime ▶ boxed inserts review impor- tant issues in criminology. For example, in Chapter 2, the feature “Explaining Trends in Crime Rates” dis- cusses the social and political factors that cause crime rates to rise and fall.
Policy and Practice in Criminology ▶ boxes show how criminological ideas and research can be put into action. For example, a Policy and Practice in Criminology feature in Chapter 7 discusses Head Start, probably the best-known effort to help youths in the lower socio economic class receive effective socialization and, in so doing, reduce their potential for future criminality.
Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology ▶ boxes cover issues related to racial, cultural, and sexual diversity. In Chapter 6, for example, the feature “More Than Just Race” discusses the work and thought of William Julius Wilson, one of the nation’s leading sociologists.
All of these boxes are accompanied by critical thinking questions. In addition to these elements, the text also includes other helpful features:
Profi les in Crime ▶ (new in this edition) present stu- dents with actual crimes that help illustrate positions or views discussed in the chapter. For example, a Chapter feature titled “Crime of the Century: Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities, LLC” examines the greatest secu- rities fraud in U.S. history.
Connections ▶ are brief inserts that help link the mate- rial to other topics addressed in the book. For example, a Connections box in Chapter 11 shows how efforts to
control theft offenses are linked to the choice theory of crime discussed in Chapter 4.
Checkpoints ▶ appear at the end of each major section throughout each chapter. They review the key concepts presented in that section to reinforce the chapter learn- ing objectives.
Chapter Outlines ▶
Chapter Learning Objectives ▶ . Each chapter begins with a list of key learning objectives that correspond to the most important sections and issues contained within the material.
A ▶ running glossary in the margins ensures that students understand words and concepts as they are introduced.
A ▶ Thinking Like a Criminologist section at the end of each chapter presents challenging questions or issues that students must answer or confront by drawing on their knowledge of criminology. Applying the informa- tion they have learned in the text will help students begin to “think like criminologists.”
An end of chapter ▶ Summary revisits the opening chap- ter learning objectives and links them directly to the material covered in the text.
Each chapter ends with a list of ▶ Key Terms, followed by Critical Thinking Questions, which help develop students’ analytical abilities.
Supplements An extensive package of supplemental aids is available for instructor and student use with this edition of Criminology: The Core. Supplements are available to qualified adopters. Please consult your local sales representative for details.
FOR THE INSTRUCTOR Instructor’s Edition Designed just for instructors, the In- structor’s Edition includes a visual walk-through that il- lustrates the key pedagogical features of the text, as well as the media and supplements that accompany it. Use this handy tool to learn quickly about the many options this text provides to keep your class engaging and informative.
Instructor’s Resource Manual with Test Bank The updated and revised Instructor’s Resource Manual for the fourth edi- tion, prepared by Joanne Ziembo-Vogl of Grand Valley State University, provides detailed outlines, key terms and concepts, discussion topics and student activities, and criti- cal thinking questions that will help you more effectively communicate with your students, while allowing you to strengthen your coverage of course material.
PowerLecture This instructor resource includes Microsoft® PowerPoint® lecture slides with graphics from the text,
making it easy for you to assemble, edit, publish, and pre- sent lectures customized for your course.
PowerPoint Slides These handy Microsoft PowerPoint slides, which outline the chapters of the main text in a classroom-ready presentation, will help you in making your lectures engaging and in reaching your visually oriented students. The presentations are available for download on the password-protected website and can also be obtained by emailing your local Cengage Learning representative.
eBank Lesson Plans The Lesson Plans, created by Aaron Peeks of Elon University, bring accessible, masterful sug- gestions to every lesson. The Lesson Plans include sample syllabi, learning objectives, lecture notes, discussion topics, in-class activities, a detailed lecture outline, and assign- ments. Lesson Plans are available on the PowerLecture re- source and the instructor website, or you can access them by emailing your local representative and asking for a download of the eBank files.
WebTutor™ Jumpstart your course with customizable, rich, text-specific content within your Course Management Sys- tem. Whether you want to Web-enable your class or put an entire course online, WebTutor™ delivers. Web Tutor™ offers a wide array of resources, including media assets, test bank, practice quizzes, and additional study aids. Visit webtutor.cengage.com to learn more.
Classroom Activities for Criminal Justice This valuable booklet, which is available to adopters of any Wadsworth criminal justice text, offers instructors the best of the best in criminal justice classroom activities. Containing both tried-and-true favorites and exciting new projects, its ac- tivities are drawn from across the spectrum of criminal justice subjects (including introduction to criminal justice, criminology, corrections, criminal law, policing, and juve- nile justice) and can be customized to fit any course. Nov- ice and seasoned instructors alike will find this booklet a powerful tool to stimulate classroom engagement.
The Wadsworth Criminal Justice Resource Center, www .cengage.com/criminaljustice Designed with the instructor in mind, this website provides information about W adsworth’s technology and teaching solutions, as well as several fea- tures created specifically for today’s criminal justice student. Supreme Court updates, timelines, and hot-topic polling can all be used to supplement in-class assignments and discus- sions. You’ll also find a wealth of links to careers and news in criminal justice, book-specific sites, and much more.
FOR THE STUDENT Companion Website, www.cengage.com/criminaljustice/ siegel The new companion website provides many c hapter-specific resources, including chapter outlines,www.cengage.com/criminaljusticewww.cengage.com/criminaljusticewww.cengage.com/criminaljustice/siegelwww.cengage.com/criminaljustice/siegel
learning objectives, glossary, flash cards, crossword puz- zles, and t utorial quizzing.
Criminal Justice Media Library This engaging resource p rovides students with more than 300 ways to investigate current topics, career choices, and critical concepts.
Study Guide An extensive student guide has been devel- oped for this edition by Bernadette Holmes of Norfolk State University. Because students learn in different ways, the Study Guide includes a variety of pedagogical aids that will help them do their best, as well as integrated art and f igures from the main text. Each text chapter is outlined and s ummarized, major terms and figures are defined, and self-tests are provided for review.
Handbook of Selected Supreme Court Cases, Third E dition This supplementary handbook covers nearly 40 landmark cases, each of which includes a full case citation, an introduction, a summary from WestLaw, excerpts from the case, and the decision. The updated edition includes Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Roper v. Simmons, Ring v. Arizona, Atkins v. Virginia, Illinois v. Caballes, and much more.
CLeBook CLeBook enables students to access Cengage Learning textbooks in an easy-to-use online format. High- light, take notes, bookmark, search your text, and (in some titles) link directly into multimedia. CLeBook combines the best aspects of paper books and ebooks in one package.
Acknowledgments The preparation of this book would not have been possible without the aid of my colleagues who helped by reviewing the previous editions and gave me important suggestions for improvement.
REVIEWERS FOR THE FOURTH EDITION Yvonne Downs, Hibert College Michael Hallett, University of North Florida
Monica Jayroe, Faulkner University Charles Ochie, Albany State University Kay Kei-Ho Pih, California State University Northridge
REVIEWERS OF PREVIOUS EDITIONS John Broderick, Stonehill College Stephen J. Brodt, Ball State University Doris Chu, Arkansas State University Dana C. De Witt, Chadron State College Dorinda L. Dowis, Columbus State University Yvonne Downs, Hibert College Sandra Emory, University of New Mexico Dorothy M. Goldsborough, Chaminade University Robert G. Hewitt, Edison Community College Catherine F. Lavery, Sacred Heart University Danielle Liautaud-Watkins, William Paterson University Larry A. Long, Pioneer Pacific College Heather Melton, University of Utah Adam Rafalovich, Texas Technology University Ronald Sopenhoff, Brookdale Community College Mark A. Stelter, Montgomery College Tom Tomlinson, Western Illinois University Matt Vetter, Saint Mary’s University Scott Wagner, Columbus State Community College Jay R. Williams, Duke University
My colleagues at Cengage Learning have done their typically outstanding job of aiding me in the preparation of this text and putting up with my yearly angst. Carolyn Henderson Meier, my scintillating editor, helped guide this project from start to finish. Shelley Murphy, que es fabu- loso y fantástico, is a terrific developmental editor I cannot live without. My BFF Linda Rill did her usual outstanding job on photo research. Aaron Downey, the book’s produc- tion editor, was professional, helpful, and kind. I really ap- preciate the help of Connie Day, a wonderful copyeditor. The sensational Christy Frame is an extraordinary produc- tion manager, and the incomparable Michelle Williams is my favorite marketing manager.