Criminology Assignment 1 Short

Table of Contents



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The purpose of this short essay is for students to demonstrate critical thinking skills when it comes to analyzing Rational Choice Theory. Specifically, I want to gauge how well you understand: a) the underlying assumptions of rational choice theory; b) how to apply the underlying assumptions of rational choice theory to specific crime types; and c) how deterrence theory fits within rational choice theory.



There are three parts to this short essay. The first part calls for students to make an argument regarding the rationality of crime. The second part calls for students to use examples of specific crime types to support their argument concerning the rationality of crime. The last part asks students to explain the effects of deterrence as it relates to your argument concerning the rationality of crime.

To summarize, these are the elements you need to address in your essay:
1) Make an argument stating whether or not you feel criminal activity is rational.

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2) Identify and explain which crime types support your argument regarding the relationship between rationality and crime.

3) Based on your argument regarding the relationship between rationality and crime, describe how effective deterrence would be (or would not be) for reducing crime and why?


Your short essay must be double-spaced with 12-point font and no longer than 3 pages. 

Criminological Theories Choice Theory (Neoclassical)

Classical Theory

Cesare Beccaria

1760s to Present

Criminals weigh the costs and benefits and make a conscious, rational choice to commit crime.

General Deterrence; Specific Deterrence; Routine Activities

Rational choice; offense- and offender-specific; just desserts; situational crime prevention; deterrence incapacitation

Trait Theory

Positivist Theory

Biosocial Theories (Sociobiology)

Cesare Lombroso; Edward O. Wilson

1870s to Present

The basic determinants of criminal behavior are biologically based and inher- ited. These include chemical, neurological and genetic conditions.

Biochemical Theory; Neurolog- ical Theory; Genetic Theory; Evolutionary Theory; Arousal Theory; Attachment theory

Diet and crime; metabolism; hormonal influences; PMS; neurophysiology; ADHD; genetics

Psychological Theories

Sigmund Freud; Albert Bandura; Jean Piaget; Lawrence Kohlberg

1920s to Present

Abnormal personality and psychological traits are the key determinant of anti-social behavior. There is a link between mental illness, personality disorders, and crime.

Psychodynamic Theory; Behavioral Theory; Social Learning Theory; Cognitive Theory; Moral Development Theory

Id, ego, superego; disorders; behavior modeling; infor- mation processing; antiso- cial personality; intelligence; moral development; nature versus nurture


Main Theorists


Major Premise


Key Ideas

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Sociological Theory

Edwin Sutherland; Travis Hirschi; Edwin Lemert; Howard Becker

1930s to Present

Criminal behavior is a function of the interaction between individuals and society; criminality occurs as a result of group interaction and the socialization process.

Social Learning Theory; Differential Association Theory; Neutralization Theory; Social Control Theory; Labeling Theory; Social Reaction Theory

Socialization; peer relations; family relations; differential association; techniques of neutralization; self-concept; social bond; stigma; retro- spective reading; primary and secondary deviance

Social Structure Theory

Social Process Theory

Clifford R. Shaw & Henry D. McKay; Walter Miller; Albert Cohen; Richard Cloward & Lloyd Ohlin

1920s to Present

Social and economic forces are the key determinants of criminal behavior patterns. Crime is the result of an individual’s location within the structure of society.

Social Disorganization Theory; Strain Theory; Anomie Theory; Institutional Anomie; General Strain Theory (GST); Cultural Deviance Theory; Theory of Delinquent Subcultures; Theory of Differential Opportunity

Poverty; transitional neighbor- hoods; concentric zones; subcul- ture; cultural transmission; social ecology; collective efficacy; relative deprivation; anomie; conduct norms; focal concerns; differential opportunity

Developmental Theory

Life Course Latent Trait

Multifactor Theory Sheldon & Eleanor Glueck; John Laub & Robert Sampson

1930s to Present

As people go through the life course, social and personal traits undergo change and influence behavior.

Social Development Model; Interactional Theory; General Theory of Crime and Delin- quency; Age-Graded Theory

Problem behavior syndrome; pathways to crime; turning points; social capital

James Q. Wilson & Richard Herrnstein; Travis Hirschi & Michael Gottfredson

1980s to Present

A master trait that controls human development inter- acts with criminal opportunity.

General Theory of Crime (GTC); Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory; Differential Coercion Theory; Control Balance Theory

Impulsive personality; low self-control; latent traits

Critical Theory

Willem Bonger; Ralf Dahrendorf; George Vold; Karl Marx

1960s to Present

Inequality between social classes (groups) results in condi- tions that empower the wealthy and disenfranchise the less fortunate; these are the root causes of crime. It is the ongo- ing struggle for power, control, and material well-being that produces crime.

Critical Criminology; Instru- mental Theory; Structural Theory; Left-Realism; Critical Feminism Power-Control Theory; Peacemaking Criminology

Power; social conflict; marginal- ization; capitalism; social class; globalization; left realism; exploitation; patriarchy; restor- ative justice; social justice; rein- tegrative shaming; restoration

Marxist/Conflict Theory

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Criminology The Core

LARRY J. SIEGEL University of Massachusetts, Lowell

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Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11


This book is dedicated to my grandchildren:

The brilliant and handsome Jack Macy

The talkative and beautiful Brooke Macy

The gorgeous princess and ballet dancer,

Kayla Jean Macy


LARRY J. SIEGEL was born in the Bronx in 1947. While living on Jerome Avenue and attending City College of New York in the 1960s, he was swept

up in the social and political currents of the time. He became intrigued with

the influence contemporary culture had on individual behavior: Did people

shape society or did society shape people? He applied his interest in social

forces and human behavior to the study of crime and justice. After graduating

CCNY, he attended the newly opened program in criminal justice at the State

University of New York at Albany, earning both his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees

there. After completing his graduate work, Dr. Siegel began his teaching career

at Northeastern University, where he was a faculty member for nine years.

After leaving Northeastern, he held teaching positions at the University of

Nebraska–Omaha and Saint Anselm College in New Hampshire. He is currently

a professor at the University of Massachusetts–Lowell. Dr. Siegel has written

extensively in the area of crime and justice, including books on juvenile law,

delinquency, criminology, criminal justice, and criminal procedure. He is a

court certified expert on police conduct and has testified in numerous legal

cases. The father of four and grandfather of three, Larry Siegel and his wife,

Terry, now reside in Bedford, New Hampshire, with their two dogs, Watson

and Cody.

About the Author

The author with his wife, Therese, in Italy


Brief Contents

Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology 3

Chapter 2 The Nature and Extent of Crime 27

Chapter 3 Victims and Victimization 59

Part 1 Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology

Part 2 Theories of Crime Causation Chapter 4 Choice Theory: Because They Want To 83

Chapter 5 Trait Theory 107

Chapter 6 Social Structure Theory 135

Chapter 7 Social Process Theories 167

Chapter 8 Social Conflict and Critical Criminology 197

Chapter 9 Developmental Theories: Life-Course and Latent Trait 225

Part 3 Crime Typologies Chapter 10 Violent Crime: Personal and Political 253

Chapter 11 Property Crimes 293

Chapter 12 Enterprise Crime: White-Collar Crime, Cyber Crime, and Organized Crime 315

Chapter 13 Public Order Crimes 349

Part 4 The Criminal Justice System Chapter 14 The Criminal Justice System 381

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Chapter 1

Crime and Criminology 3 What Criminologists Do: The Criminological Enterprise 4

Criminal Statistics/Crime Measurement 4

Sociology of Law / Law and Society / Socio-Legal Studies 5

Developing Theories of Crime Causation 5

Policy and Practice in Criminology Should Sex Offenders Be Registered? 6

Understanding and Describing Criminal Behavior 7

Penology: Punishment, Sanctions, and Corrections 7

Victimology 8

A Brief History of Criminology 9

Classical Criminology 9

Positivist Criminology 10

Sociological Criminology 11

Confl ict Criminology 12

Developmental Criminology 12

Contemporary Criminology 13

Deviant or Criminal? How Criminologists Defi ne Crime 14

Profiles in Crime Kiddie Porn 15 Becoming Deviant 15

The Concept of Crime 16

Consensus View of Crime 17

Confl ict View of Crime 17

Interactionist View of Crime 17

A Defi nition of Crime 17

Crime and the Criminal Law 18

Common Law 18

Contemporary Criminal Law 19

The Evolution of Criminal Law 20

Ethical Issues in Criminology 21

Thinking Like a Criminologist 22

Summary 23

Key Terms 24

Critical Thinking Questions 24

Chapter 2

The Nature and Extent of Crime 27 Primary Sources of Crime Data 28

Offi cial Records: The Uniform Crime Report 28

NIBRS: The Future of the Uniform Crime Report 31

Survey Research 31

Profiles in Crime A Pain in the Glass 32 The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) 32

Self-Report Surveys 34

Evaluating Crime Data 36

Crime Trends 37

Trends in Offi cially Recorded Crime 37

Trends in Victimization 38

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology International Crime Trends 40

What the Future Holds 41

Crime Patterns 43

The Ecology of Crime 43

Part 1 Concepts of Crime, Law, and Criminology

Preface xiv

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Current Issues in Crime Explaining Trends in Crime Rates 44

Use of Firearms 46

Social Class, Socioeconomic Conditions, and Crime 48

Age and Crime 48

Gender and Crime 49

Race and Crime 51

Chronic Offenders/Criminal Careers 53

What Causes Chronicity? 54

Implications of the Chronic Offender Concept 54

Thinking Like a Criminologist 55

Summary 55

Key Terms 56

Critical Thinking Questions 57

Chapter 3

Victims and Victimization 59 The Victim’s Role 60

Victimization’s Toll on Society 60

Economic Loss 60

Blaming the Victim 61

Long-Term Stress 61

Fear 62

Antisocial Behavior 63

The Nature of Victimization 63

The Social Ecology of Victimization 63

The Victim’s Household 64

Victim Characteristics 64

Victims and Their Criminals 67

Theories of Victimization 68

Victim Precipitation Theory 68

Lifestyle Theories 69

Deviant Place Theory 70

Current Issues in Crime Escalation or Desistance? The Effect of Victimization on Criminal Careers 71

Routine Activities Theory 71

Caring for the Victim 74

Victim Service Programs 75

Victims’ Rights 77

Profiles in Crime Jesse Timmendequas and Megan’s Law 78

Thinking Like a Criminologist 79

Summary 79

Key Terms 80

Critical Thinking Questions 81

Part 2 Theories of Crime Causation

Chapter 4

Choice Theory: Because They Want To 83 Development of Rational Choice Theory 84

Concepts of Rational Choice 85

Evaluating the Risks of Crime 85

Offense- and Offender-Specifi c Crime 86

Structuring Criminality 86

Structuring Crime 87

Profiles in Crime Looting the Public Treasury 88

Is Crime Rational? 89

Is Theft Rational? 89

Is Drug Use Rational? 89

Can Violence Be Rational? 90

Why Do People Commit Crime? 91

Controlling Crime 92

Situational Crime Prevention 92

Crime Prevention Strategies 92

Policy and Practice in Criminology Reducing Crime through Surveillance 94

The Costs and Benefi ts of Situational Crime Prevention 95

General Deterrence 95

Certainty of Punishment 96

Severity of Punishment 96

Swiftness of Punishment 97

Critique of General Deterrence 97

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Contents ix

Current Issues in Crime Does Availability of the Death Penalty Discourage Murder? 98

Specifi c Deterrence 99

Incapacitation 100

Can Incapacitation Reduce Crime? 101

Policy Implications of Choice Theory 103

Thinking Like a Criminologist 104

Summary 104

Key Terms 105

Critical Thinking Questions 105

Chapter 5

Trait Theory 107 Development of Trait Theory 108

Contemporary Trait Theory 109

Biological Trait Theories 109

Biochemical Conditions and Crime 110

Neurophysiological Conditions and Crime 113

Current Issues in Crime Teenage Behavior: Is It the Brain? 114

Genetics and Crime 116

Evolutionary Views of Crime 118

Evaluation of the Biological Branch of Trait Theory 118

The Psychological Trait View 119

Psychological Theories and Crime 120

The Psychodynamic Perspective 120

The Behavioral Perspective: Social Learning Theory 121

Current Issues in Crime Violent Media/Violent Behavior? 122

Cognitive Theory 124

Personality and Crime 125

Psychopathic Personality 126

Intelligence and Crime 127

Mental Disorders and Crime 128

Social Policy and Trait Theory 129

Profi les in Crime Andrea Yates 130

Thinking Like a Criminologist 131

Summary 132

Key Terms 133

Critical Thinking Questions 133

Chapter 6

Social Structure Theory 135 Economic Structure and Crime 136

Problems of the Lower Class 137

Child Poverty 137

Minority Group Poverty 137

Poverty and Crime 139

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology More Than Just Race 140

Social Structure Theories 140

Social Disorganization Theory 143

The Work of Shaw and McKay 144

The Social Ecology School 145

Strain Theories 151

Theory of Anomie 151

Institutional Anomie Theory 153

Relative Deprivation Theory 153

General Strain Theory (GST) 154

Cultural Deviance Theory 157

Theory of Delinquent Subcultures 158

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology The Code of the Streets 159

Theory of Differential Opportunity 161

Social Structure Theory and Public Policy 162

Thinking Like a Criminologist 163

Summary 163

Key Terms 164

Critical Thinking Questions 165

Chapter 7

Social Process Theories 167 Institutions of Socialization 169

Family Relations 169

Educational Experience 170

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Current Issues in Crime Family Functioning and Crime 171

Peer Relations 172

Religion and Belief 172

Social Learning Theories 173

Differential Association Theory 173

Neutralization Theory 177

Evaluating Learning Theories 179

Social Control Theory 180

Self-Concept and Crime 180

Hirschi’s Social Control Theory 180

Testing Social Control Theory: Supportive Research 182

Critiquing Social Control Theory 183

Profiles in Crime Alpha Dog 184

Social Reaction (Labeling) Theory 185

Consequences of Labeling 186

Primary and Secondary Deviance 187

Crime and Labeling 188

Differential Enforcement 189

Research on Social Reaction Theory 189

Is Labeling Theory Valid? 191

Social Process Theory and Public Policy 191

Policy and Practice in Criminology Head Start 192

Thinking Like a Criminologist 194

Summary 194

Key Terms 195

Critical Thinking Questions 195

Chapter 8

Social Conflict and Critical Criminology 197 Confl ict and Crime 198

Origins of Critical Criminology 198

Contemporary Critical Criminology 200

How Critical Criminologists Defi ne Crime 201

State (Organized) Crime 202

How Critical Criminologists View the Cause of Crime 204

Current Issues in Crime Torturing Terror Suspects 205

Globalization 206

Instrumental Vs. Structural Theory 207

Instrumental Theory 207

Structural Theory 208

Research on Critical Criminology 208

Profiles in Crime Mumia Abu-Jamal 210

Critique of Critical Criminology 211

Left Realism 211

Crime Protection 212

Critical Feminist Theory 212

Patriarchy and Crime 213

Power–Control Theory 214

Peacemaking Criminology 215

Critical Theory and Public Policy 216

The Concept of Restorative Justice 217

The Process of Restoration 218

Restoration Programs 218

Balanced and Restorative Justice (BARJ) 219

The Challenge of Restorative Justice 220

Policy and Practice in Criminology Victim Offender Reconciliation in Denver, Colorado 221

Thinking Like a Criminologist 222

Summary 222

Key Terms 223

Critical Thinking Questions 223

Chapter 9

Developmental Theories: Life- Course and Latent Trait 225 Foundations of Developmental Theory 226

Life-Course Fundamentals 227

Problem Behavior Syndrome 228

Pathways to Crime 229

Offense Specialization/Generalization 230

Age of Onset/Continuity of Crime 230

Offending Patterns and Trends 230

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Profiles in Crime The Xbox Killers 231

Theories of the Criminal Life Course 232

Sampson and Laub’s Age-Graded Theory 233

Current Issues in Crime Love, Sex, Marriage, and Crime 236

Latent Trait Theories 236

Onset and Persistence of Crime 237

Current Issues in Crime Tracking Down The 500 Delinquent Boys 238

Crime and Human Nature 239

Part 3 Crime Typologies

General Theory of Crime 241

Analyzing the General Theory of Crime 243

Critiquing the General Theory of Crime 244

Current Issues in Crime Self-Control and Drug Dealing 247

Public Policy Implications of Developmental Theory 248

Thinking Like a Criminologist 249

Summary 249

Key Terms 250

Critical Thinking Questions 251

Chapter 10

Violent Crime: Personal and Political 253 Causes of Violence 254

Personal Traits 255

Ineffective Families 255

Evolutionary Factors/Human Instinct 255

Exposure to Violence 256

Substance Abuse 256

Firearm Availability 257

Cultural Values 257

National Values 257

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology The Honor Killing of Women and Girls 258

Forcible Rape 259

Incidence of Rape 260

Types of Rapists 260

Types of Rape 261

Causes of Rape 262

Rape and the Law 263

Murder and Homicide 265

Degrees of Murder 265

Nature and Extent of Murder 266

Murderous Relations 267

Serial Killers, Mass Murderers, and Spree Killers 270

Assault and Battery 272

Nature and Extent of Assault 272

Domestic Violence: Assault in the Home 272

Robbery 275

The Armed Robber 276

Acquaintance Robbery 276

Emerging Forms of Interpersonal Violence 277

Hate Crimes 277

Workplace Violence 280

Stalking 280

Political Violence and Terrorism 281

Contemporary Forms of Terrorism 281

What Motivates Terrorists and Terrorism? 285

Profiles in Crime Azzam the American 286

Thinking Like A Criminologist 287 Responses to Political Violence and Terrorism 288

Summary 289

Key Terms 290

Critical Thinking Questions 290

Chapter 11

Property Crimes 293 History of Theft 294

Contemporary Thieves 295

Occasional Thieves 295

Professional Thieves 295

Larceny/Theft 296

Common Larceny/Theft Offenses 297

Shoplifting 297

Profiles in Crime Invasion of the Body Snatchers 298

Credit Card Theft 300

Auto Theft 300

Bad Checks 303

False Pretenses/Fraud 303

Receiving and Fencing Stolen Property 305

Embezzlement 305© A

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Current Issues in Crime Confessions of a Dying Thief 306

Burglary 306

Nature and Extent of Burglary 307

Types of Burglaries 307

Careers in Burglary 309

Arson 310

Thinking Like a Criminologist 311

Summary 311

Key Terms 312

Critical Thinking Questions 313

Chapter 12

Enterprise Crime: White- Collar Crime, Cyber Crime, and Organized Crime 315 Enterprise Crime 316

Crimes of Business Enterprise 316

White-Collar Crime 316

Components of White-Collar Crime 317

White-Collar Fraud 317

Chiseling 318

Profiles in Crime Crime of the Century: Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities LLC 320

Current Issues in Crime The Subprime Mortgage Scandal 321

Exploitation 321

Infl uence Peddling 322

Embezzlement and Employee Fraud 323

Client Fraud 324

Corporate Crime 326

Theories of White-Collar Crime 329

Rationalization/Neutralization View 329

Corporate Culture View 330

Self-Control View 330

White-Collar Crime and Law Enforcement Systems 330

Controlling White-Collar Crime 331

Cyber Crime 332

Cyber Theft: Cyber Crimes for Profi t 334

Computer Fraud 334

Pornography and Prostitution 334

Denial-of-Service Attack 335

Distributing Dangerous Drugs 335

Illegal Copyright Infringement 335

Internet Securities Fraud 336

Identity Theft 336

Etailing Fraud 336

Cyber Vandalism: Cyber Crime with Malicious Intent 337

Cyber Stalking 337

Cyber Bullying 337

Cyber Terrorism: Cyber Crime with Political Motives 338

Extent and Costs of Cyber Crime 338

Controlling Cyber Crime 339

What the Future Holds 339

Organized Crime 339

Characteristics of Organized Crime 340

Activities of Organized Crime 341

The Concept of Organized Crime 341

Contemporary Organized Crime Groups 341

Controlling Organized Crime 342

The Future of Organized Crime 343

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology Russian Organized Crime 344

Thinking Like a Criminologist 346

Summary 346

Key Terms 347

Critical Thinking Questions 347

Chapter 13

Public Order Crimes 349 Law and Morality 350

Criminal or Immoral? 351

Moral Crusaders and Moral Crusades 351

Sex-Related Offenses 353

Paraphilias 354

Pedophilia 354

Profiles in Crime The Jessica Lunsford Murder Case 355

Prostitution 356

Incidence of Prostitution 356

International Sex Trade 357

Types of Prostitutes 357

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Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology International Human Traffi cking 358

Becoming a Prostitute 360

Controlling Prostitution 360

Legalize Prostitution? 361

Pornography 362

Is Pornography Harmful? 362

Does Pornography Cause Violence? 363

Pornography and the Law 363

Can Pornography Be Controlled? 365

Substance Abuse 365

When Did Drug Use Begin? 366

Alcohol and Its Prohibition 366

Extent of Substance Abuse 367

Causes of Substance Abuse 368

Drugs and Crime 370

Drugs and the Law 371

Drug Control Strategies 372

Legalization of Drugs 376

Thinking Like a Criminologist 377

Summary 378

Key Terms 379

Critical Thinking Questions 379


Part 4 The Criminal Justice System

Chapter 14

The Criminal Justice System 381 What is the Criminal Justice System? 382

Police and Law Enforcement 384

The Criminal Court System 385

Profiles in Crime Canine Cruelty 390 Corrections 390

Policy and Practice in Criminology Problems of Reentry 392

The Process of Justice 394

Discretion and the Criminal Justice Process 398

Courtroom Work Group 400

Criminal Justice and the Rule of Law 400

Concepts of Justice 401

Crime Control Model 401

Due Process Model 402

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology Does Racial Bias Exist in Criminal Sentencing? 404

Rehabilitation Model 404

Equal Justice Model 406

Nonintervention Model 407

Restorative Justice Model 408

Concepts of Justice Today 409

Thinking Like a Criminologist 409

Summary 410

Key Terms 411

Critical Thinking Questions 411

Notes 413

Glossary 463

Name Index 472

Subject Index 484

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On November 5, 2009, the nation was stunned to hear that a gunman had opened fire in the Soldier Readiness Center at Fort Hood, in Killeen, Texas, killing 13 people and wounding 30 others. As the suspected gunman, Army M ajor Nidal Malik Hasan, exited the building, he was shot in an exchange of gunfire by civilian police officers Ser- geant Kimberly Munley and Sergeant Mark Todd, who had responded to an emergency call. Sergeant Munley, hit three times, was later hailed as a hero for her cool behavior under fire.

A U.S. Army psychiatrist, Hasan had enlisted imme- diately after high school graduation, and he served eight years while attending college at Virginia Tech. After gradu- ation he went on to medical school at the Uniformed Ser- vices University of the Health Sciences (USUHS), all at the expense of the U.S. government. In 2009 he was promoted to major, despite having received poor evaluations.

After the shooting, reports soon surfaced that, far from being gratified by his military and academic success, Hasan was a deeply troubled man. His relatives maintained that he had suffered harassment as a consequence of his Mid- dle Eastern background (Hasan is of Palestinian descent). Family members also claimed he was seeking a discharge from the Army because he had been the target of religious discrimination.

More troubling were reports that military authorities had failed to act despite intelligence showing that Hasan was involved in Islamic radical groups and that he had at- tempted to forge ties with al Qaeda. He had attended the Dar al-Hijrah mosque in Falls Church, Virginia, at the same time that it was frequented by two 9/11 hijackers, Nawaf al-Hazmi and Hani Hanjour.

The imam at that time, A nwar al-Awlaki, was a spiritual adviser to the hijackers, and Hasan has been said to have had deep respect for Awlaki’s teachings. Reports circulated that Hasan was highly criti- cal of United States policy in the Middle East and believed that it constituted a war on the Muslim religion. Yet even though the FBI informed the Army about his contacts and statements, no action was taken.

Was Hasan a terrorist or simply a disturbed individual who cracked under stress? He shouted, “Allah Akbar” (“God is the Greatest,”) as he shot his way through the Readiness Center. Is this an indication that he had taken on a role similar to that of a jihadist suicide bomber? There was little indication that Hasan was part of a terror cell or had formal

contacts with terrorist organizations. Can a person acting alone be considered a terrorist? On the other hand, Hasan was a doctor and psychiatrist who was in close contact with mental health professionals. If he was truly disturbed, how is it possible that none of his colleagues, trained in psychol- ogy and psychiatry, noticed his condition? Is this an indica- tion that, rather than being mentally ill, he was a rational decision maker seeking revenge?

Considering such incidents of mass violence as the Fort Hood shootings, it is not surprising that many Americans are concerned about crime and worried about becoming victims of violent crime themselves.

We alter our behav- ior to limit the risk of victimization and question whether legal punishment alone can control criminal offenders. We watch movies about law firms, clients, fugitives, and stone- cold killers. We are shocked when the news media offer graphic accounts of school shootings, police brutality, and sexual assaults.

I, too, have had a life-long interest in crime, law, and justice. Why do people behave the way they do? What causes someone like Major Hasan to kill people he hardly knew? Was his behavior the result of a diseased mind and personality? Or was he a cool, calculating terrorist seeking to undermine the U.S.

military? Could his mur- derous rampage have been predicted and prevented? And what should be done with people who commit horren- dous crimes? Does Hasan deserve to be executed for his misdeeds? And if not, who does? Would executing some- one like Hasan deter others from terrorism? Or might his martyrdom encourage other would-be terrorists to take similar actions?

Goals of this Book For the past 40 years, I have channeled my fascination with issues related to crime and justice into a career as a student and teacher of criminology. My goal in writing this text is to help students share the same enthusiasm for criminology that has sustained me during my teach- ing career.

What could be more important or fascinating than a field of study that deals with such wide-ranging top- ics as the motivation for mass murder, the effects of vio- lent media on young people, drug abuse, and organized crime? C riminology is a dynamic field, changing constantly with the release of major research studies, Supreme Court


r ulings, and g overnmental policy. Its dynamism and diver- sity make it an important and engrossing area of study.

One reason why the study of criminology is so impor- tant is that debates continue over the nature and extent of crime and the causes and prevention of criminality. Some view criminals as society’s victims who are forced to violate the law because of poverty and lack of opportunity. Others view aggressive, antisocial behavior such as the Fort Hood massacre as a product of mental and physical abnormali- ties, present at birth or soon after, that are stable over the life course.

Still another view is that crime is a function of the rational choice of greedy, selfish people who can be deterred from engaging in criminal behavior only by the threat of harsh punishments. It all comes down to this: Why do people do the things they do? How can we explain the intricacies and diversity of human behavior?

Because interest in crime and justice is so great and so timely, this text is designed to review these ongoing is- sues and cover the field of criminology in an organized and comprehensive manner. It is meant as a broad overview of the field, an introduction to whet the reader’s appetite and encourage further and more in-depth exploration.

Several major themes recur throughout the book:

Fact versus Fiction: A main goal of this new edition is to expose some of the myths that cloud people’s thinking about crime and criminals. Because the media often paint a distorted picture of the crime problem in America and focus only on the most sensational cases, it is essential to help students separate the rhetoric from the reality:

Is the crime rate really out of control? Are unemployed people inclined to commit crime? Are immigrants more crime- prone than the native-born? Are high school dropouts more likely to commit crime than graduates? Distinguish- ing what is true from what is merely legend is one of the greatest challenges for instructors in criminology courses. The all-new Fact or Fiction? feature in Criminology:

The Core helps meet that challenge head on. This feature separates myth from reality to disabuse students of incorrect notions, perceptions, and biases. Each chapter opens with a list of Fact or Fiction? statements highlighting common perceptions about crime that are related to the material discussed in the chapter. Then, throughout the text, these topics are revisited so the student will become skilled at distinguish- ing the myths from the reality of crime and criminality.

Competing Viewpoints: There are still on-going debates about the nature and extent of crime and the causes and prevention of criminality. I try to present the various view- points on each topic and then draw a conclusion based on the weight of the existing evidence. Students become familiar with this kind of analysis by examining Concept S ummary boxes that compare different viewpoints, review- ing both their main points and their strengths.

Critical Thinking: It is important for students to think critically about law and justice and to develop a critical

p erspective toward the social institutions and legal institu- tions entrusted with crime control. Throughout the book, students are asked to critique research highlighted in boxed material and to think “outside the box,” as it were. To aid in this task, each chapter ends with a brief section called Thinking Like a Criminologist, which presents a scenario that can be analyzed with the help of material found in the chapter. This section also includes critical thinking ques- tions to guide classroom interaction.

Diversity: Diversity is a key issue in criminology, and this text attempts to integrate issues of racial, ethnic, gen- der, and cultural diversity throughout. The book includes m aterial on international issues, such as the use of the death penalty abroad, and on gender issues, such as the rising rate of female criminality. Boxed features headed Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology enhance the coverage of diversity i ssues. In Chapter 14, for example, there is an in-depth discussion of how race influences sentencing in criminal courts.

Current Theory and Research: Throughout the book, every attempt is made to use the most current research to illus- trate the major trends in criminological research and policy. Most people who use the book have told me that this is one of its strongest features. I have attempted to present current research in a balanced fashion, even though this approach can be frustrating to students.

It is comforting to reach an unequivocal conclusion about an important topic, but some- times that simply is not possible. In an effort to be objective and fair, I have presented each side of important crimino- logical debates in full. Throughout the text, boxed features headed Current Issues in Crime review important research in criminology. For example, in Chapter 12, a box called “The Subprime Mortgage Scandal” helps explain this white-collar crime that nearly brought down the financial system.

Social Policy: There is a focus on social policy through- out the book so that students can see how criminological t heory has been translated into crime prevention programs. Because of this theme, Policy and Practice in Criminology fea- tures are included throughout the text.

These show how criminological ideas and research can be put into a ction. For example, Chapter 4 includes a Policy and Practice in Criminology box called “Reducing Crime through Surveil- lance.” It examines the effectiveness of closed-circuit tele- vision (CCTV) surveillance cameras and improved street l ighting—crime prevention techniques that are currently being used around the world.

My primary goals in writing this text were as follows:

1. To separate the facts from the fi ction about crime and criminality

2. To provide students with a thorough knowledge of crimi- nology and show its diversity and intellectual content

3. To be as thorough and up-to-date as possible 4. To be objective and unbiased

xvi Preface

5. To describe current theories, crime types, and methods of social control, and to analyze their strengths and weaknesses

6. To show how criminological thought has infl uenced social policy

In sum, the text has been carefully structured to cover relevant material in a comprehensive, balanced, and objective fashion. Every attempt has been made to present the material in an interesting and contemporary manner. No single political or theoretical position dominates the text; instead, it presents the many diverse views that are contained within criminology and characterize its interdisciplinary nature.

The text includes analysis of the most important scholarly works and scientific research reports, but it also offers a great deal of topical information on recent cases and events, such as the controversial arrest, trial, and conviction of activist cop killer Mumia Abu-Jamal and the fall of financier Bernard Madoff, perpetrator of what was probably the largest scam in the nation’s history.

Topic Areas Criminology: The Core is a thorough introduction to this fas- cinating field and is intended for students in introductory courses in criminology. It is divided into four main sections or topic areas.

Part 1 provides a framework for studying criminology. The first chapter defines the field and discusses its most basic concepts: the definition of crime, the component areas of criminology, the history of criminology, the concept of criminal law, and the ethical issues that arise in this field.

Chapter 2 covers criminological research methods, as well as the nature, extent, and patterns of crime. Chapter 3 is devoted to the concept of victimization, including the nature of victims, theories of victimization, and programs designed to help crime victims.

Part 2 contains six chapters that cover criminological t heory: Why do people behave the way they do? Why do they commit crimes? These views focus on choice (C hapter 4), biological and psychological traits (Chapter 5), social structure and culture (Chapter 6), social process and socialization (Chapter 7), social conflict (Chapter 8), and human development (Chapter 9).

Part 3 is devoted to the major forms of criminal behavior. The chapters in this section cover violent crime (C hapter 10), common theft offenses (Chapter 11), enter- prise crimes (Chapter 12), and public order crimes, includ- ing sex offenses and substance abuse (Chapter 13).

Part 4 consists of one chapter, which covers the criminal justice system (Chapter 14). It provides an overview of the entire justice system, including the process of justice, the major organizations that make up the justice system, and concepts of and perspectives on justice.

What’s New in This Edition? Chapter 1, Crime and Criminology, now opens with a vignette on financier Norman Hsu, who pleaded guilty to ten counts of mail and wire fraud stemming from his role in an invest- ment fraud scheme that affected investors across the United States.

A Policy and Practice in Criminology feature addresses the important issue of whether registration of sex offenders who have served their sentences should be required. There is a review of recent research, including an article by Tatia M. C. Lee, Siu-Ching Chan, and Adrian Raine that sought to determine whether these criminals’ aggressive behavior was a product of their neurological makeup or a social con- dition such as unemployment. A new Profiles in Crime fea- ture focuses on a case involving “kiddie porn.”

Chapter 2, The Nature and Extent of Crime, begins with a v ignette on George Zinkhan, who killed his wife Marie Bruce and two other people as they left a reunion picnic of the Town and Gown Players theater group in Athens, Georgia. A Profiles in Crime feature called “A Pain in the Glass” tells the story of Ronald and Mary Evano, who turned dining in res- taurants into a profitable—albeit illegal—activity via a scam that involved eating glass. The data in the c hapter has been updated with a look at recent crime trends and patterns.

Chapter 3, Victims and Victimization, includes a new s ection on blaming the victim that shows that the suffering e ndured by crime victims does not end when their attacker leaves the scene of the crime. They may suffer further from innuendos or insinuations that they are somehow to blame for what happened.

A new section on crime in schools shows that, unfortunately, educational facilities are the site of a great deal of victimization, because they include a concentrated population of one of the most dangerous seg- ments of society: teenage males. A new section on victim impulsivity explores the idea that some personality traits exhibited by victims may provoke attack.

A Current Issues in Crime feature called “Escalation or Desistance: The Effect of Victimization on Criminal Careers” discusses what happens when a criminal experiences victimization. Does it encour- age further criminal activities? Or might the e xperience of victimization help convince a career criminal to choose a nother career?

Chapter 4, Choice Theory: Because They Want To, begins with the story of the “pump and dump” stock market scheme orchestrated by Michael Pickens, son of one of the nation’s richest men. A new section on evaluating the risks of crime explores how reasoning criminals carefully select targets.

For example, burglars seem to choose targets on the basis of their value, novelty, and resale potential. A Profiles in Crime feature called “Looting the Public Treasury” tells the tale of the corruption of Albert Robles, who served terms as mayor, councilman, and deputy city manager of South Gate, California. A Policy and Practice in Criminology feature called “Reducing Crime through Surveillance” updates the


research of Brandon Welsh and David Farrington, who have been using systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the comparative effectiveness of situational crime prevention techniques. The chapter also examines the deterrent effects of the severity, certainty, and speed of punishment and the way those factors may influence one another.

Research is presented to show that people may be deterred from committing some crimes more readily than from committing others and that the most significant deterrent effects can be achieved in minor crimes and offenses, whereas more serious crimes such as homicide are harder to discourage.

Chapter 5, Trait Theory, opens with the stories of 23-year- old Seung-Hui Cho, who took the lives of 32 people at V irginia Tech, and Steven Kazmierczak, a former student at Northern Illinois University who killed five people when he attacked the campus. There is an analysis of psychologist Bernard Rimland’s 2008 book Dyslogic Syndrome, which disputes the notion that bad or ineffective parenting is to blame for troubled or disobedient children and places the blame on bad diets instead.

A Current Issues in Crime feature titled “Teenage Behavior: Is it the Brain?” reviews new brain research that is shedding light on some of the reasons why so much conflict exists between parents and teens. There is a new section on John Bowlby’s attachment theory, which holds that the ability to form an emotional bond to another person has important psychological implications that persist across the life span. Another Current Issues in Crime feature updates research on violence in the media and its effect on human behavior.

Chapter 6, Social Structure Theory, contains new information on the MS-13 gang, which originally formed as a means of self-protection. (The name is made up of three elements: mara, Spanish for “posse” or gang, salvatruchas, slang for be- ing alert and ready to take action, and 13, a reference to the gang’s beginnings on 13th Street in Los Angeles.) There is updated information on poverty in the United States and its impact on children and minority group members.

Today, almost 25 percent of African Americans and 22 percent of Latino Americans still live in poverty, compared to less than 10 percent of whites. A Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology feature called “More than Just Race” updates the work of William Julius Wilson, one of the nation’s most prominent sociologists, with analysis of his most recent work, More than Just Race: Being Black and Poor in the Inner City.

Chapter 7, Social Process Theories, begins with the continu- ing saga of Genarlow Wilson, a teenager who was labeled a sexual predator and sent to prison but was later released when those in power decided that he was not really a felon and that the law was not intended to apply to his offense. A Current Issues in Crime feature titled “Family Functioning and Crime” reviews the work of Rand Conger, one of the nation’s leading experts on family life. Recent research on peers and delinquency and the association of young of- fenders with friendship groups is reviewed. New evidence

suggests that most juvenile offenses are committed by in- dividuals acting alone and that group offending, when it does occur, is merely incidental and of little importance in explaining the onset of delinquency, a finding that sup- ports Hirschi’s social bond theory.

Chapter 8, Social Conflict and Critical Criminology, is introduced by a vignette on the Sri Lankan government’s civil rights abuses in its war against the Tamil Tiger rebel group. There is a major new section on state (organized) crime—criminal acts committed by state officials, both elected and appointed, while holding their jobs as government representatives.

Within this section are discussions of political corruption, illegal domestic surveillance, human rights violations, state–corporate crime, and state violence. A Current Issues in Crime feature titled “Torturing Terror Suspects” looks at the use of torture to gain information from suspected political criminals. There are new sections on restorative justice, including A Policy and Practice in Criminology feature on the Victim Offender Reconciliation Program (VORP) of Denver, Colorado.

Chapter 9, Developmental Theories: Life-Course and Latent Trait, opens with a vignette on the life and times of the outlaw Jesse James, a true folk hero. Loved by the “little people,” James remained an active outlaw until April 3, 1882. How did his career develop? And can we identify turning points that led him to a life of crime? A Profiles in Crime feature on the Xbox killers covers the career of Troy Victorino and his friends Robert Cannon, Jerone Hunter, and Michael Salas, who committed one of the most brutal crimes in American history.

A Current Issues in Crime feature called “Love, Sex, Marriage, and Crime” delves into the effect of romance on crime. According to developmental theory, romance helps neutralize crime. Does love really work wonders? Another Current Issues in Crime feature, “Self-Control and Drug D ealing,” probes the motives for getting involved in drug dealing, a crime that seems to reflect business enterprise and cunning, rather than impulsivity and lack of self-control.

Chapter 10, Violent Crime: Personal and Political, updates the data on various forms of common-law violence: rape, murder, assault, and robbery. A new Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology feature titled “The Honor Killing of Women and Girls” discusses culture and violence. There is new in- formation on date rape and hate crimes. The material on terrorism has been reorganized and updated.

Chapter 11, Property Crimes, begins with the story of William M. V. Kingsland, an urbane upper-class gentleman, intellectual, and art expert who, after his death, was found to have been a chronic art thief who was able to amass a collection worth millions.

There are new sections on cargo thieves, professional criminals who work in highly organized groups, targeting specific items and employing “specialists” who bring different sets of criminal skills to the table when they hijack cargo shipments. Another section introduces car cloning, a new form of professional auto

xviii Preface

theft that involves stealing a luxury car and then substituting the registration of a vehicle of the exact same make and model (and even the same color) as the stolen one. There is an exhibit on check fraud schemes. A new section on third-party fraud discusses schemes in which the “victim” is a third party, such as an insurance company that is forced to pay false claims.

Chapter 12, Enterprise Crime: White-Collar Crime, Cyber Crime, and Organized Crime, begins with a new vignette on an inter- national child pornography ring that originated in Australia and recruited pornographers from all over the world. The chapter now discusses contract frauds that tempt people to sign long-term agreements without informing them that the small print included in the sales contract obligates them to purchase high-priced services they did not really want in the first place.

A new Profiles in Crime feature covers the multibillion-dollar stock market fraud committed by businessman Bernard Madoff, and a Current Issues in Crime feature addresses the subprime mortgage scandal. There is a review of the case of Wayne Cresap, a Louisiana judge who was charged with accepting bribes from individuals who wanted to influence his bail decision making. The section on cyber crime examines the case of Lori Drew, a Missouri woman who perpetrated a MySpace hoax on a teenage neighbor who later committed suicide. The text now discusses the illegal sale of controlled substances, mostly stimulants and depressants, via Internet websites.

Chapter 13, Public Order Crimes, begins with a vignette on the Emperor’s Club and one of its clients, New York’s hard- charging Governor Eliot Spitzer, who was forced to resign when word got out that he was seeing prostitutes. A new section on social harm points out the irony that 500,000 deaths in the United States each year can be linked to the consumption of tobacco and alcohol, substances it is perfectly legal for adults to sell and use.

The material on moral crusades has been expanded, and there is discus- sion of anti smut campaigns that target books considered too “racy” or controversial to be suitable for a public school library. A new section examines the “moral crusade” aimed at preventing the legalization of same-sex marriage. There is a new section on the international sex trade and a Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology feature titled “International Human Trafficking.” Among the new research discussed is a recent longitudinal analysis by Cesar Rebellon and Karen Van Gundy, which found evidence that marijuana users are up to five times more likely than nonusers to escalate their drug abuse and try cocaine and heroin.

Chapter 14, The Criminal Justice System, begins with the story of Savana Redding, a 13-year-old eighth-grade honor stu- dent who was subjected to a strip search after being accused of possessing prescription-strength ibuprofen. The ruling in this case limited the ability of school officials to search stu- dents. The newest data on the size, cost, and scope of crimi- nal justice is presented. A Profiles in Crime titled “Canine Cruelty” shows that NFL quarterback Michael Vick is not

alone in his involvement with dog fighting. Detailed analy- sis of the correctional population is included. Both the jail and prison populations have steadily grown despite a re- duction in the crime rate, probably because the proportion of those convicted who are sentenced to prison has been increasing, along with the lengths of criminal sentences.

Features This text contains various pedagogical elements designed to help students analyze material in greater depth and also link it to other material in the book:

Fact or Fiction? ▶ There are numbers of myths and leg- ends about crime and criminology. And some widely held beliefs have turned out to be false and misleading myths. Can we tell what is fact from what is merely fi ction? At the beginning of each chapter, a set of state- ments appears describing popular beliefs about crime, criminals, law, and justice. Then, throughout the chap- ter, these statements are revisited in order to confi rm the accurate ones and set students straight about the others. For example, many people believe that immi- grants commit a lot of crime. Is that true? Find out in Chapter 2.

Current Issues in Crime ▶ boxed inserts review impor- tant issues in criminology. For example, in Chapter 2, the feature “Explaining Trends in Crime Rates” dis- cusses the social and political factors that cause crime rates to rise and fall.

Policy and Practice in Criminology ▶ boxes show how criminological ideas and research can be put into action. For example, a Policy and Practice in Criminology feature in Chapter 7 discusses Head Start, probably the best-known effort to help youths in the lower socio economic class receive effective socialization and, in so doing, reduce their potential for future criminality.

Race, Culture, Gender, and Criminology ▶ boxes cover issues related to racial, cultural, and sexual diversity. In Chapter 6, for example, the feature “More Than Just Race” discusses the work and thought of William Julius Wilson, one of the nation’s leading sociologists.

All of these boxes are accompanied by critical thinking questions. In addition to these elements, the text also includes other helpful features:

Profi les in Crime ▶ (new in this edition) present stu- dents with actual crimes that help illustrate positions or views discussed in the chapter. For example, a Chapter feature titled “Crime of the Century: Bernard L. Madoff Investment Securities, LLC” examines the greatest secu- rities fraud in U.S. history.

Connections ▶ are brief inserts that help link the mate- rial to other topics addressed in the book. For example, a Connections box in Chapter 11 shows how efforts to


control theft offenses are linked to the choice theory of crime discussed in Chapter 4.

Checkpoints ▶ appear at the end of each major section throughout each chapter. They review the key concepts presented in that section to reinforce the chapter learn- ing objectives.

Chapter Outlines ▶

Chapter Learning Objectives ▶ . Each chapter begins with a list of key learning objectives that correspond to the most important sections and issues contained within the material.

A ▶ running glossary in the margins ensures that students understand words and concepts as they are introduced.

A ▶ Thinking Like a Criminologist section at the end of each chapter presents challenging questions or issues that students must answer or confront by drawing on their knowledge of criminology. Applying the informa- tion they have learned in the text will help students begin to “think like criminologists.”

An end of chapter ▶ Summary revisits the opening chap- ter learning objectives and links them directly to the material covered in the text.

Each chapter ends with a list of ▶ Key Terms, followed by Critical Thinking Questions, which help develop students’ analytical abilities.

Supplements An extensive package of supplemental aids is available for instructor and student use with this edition of Criminology: The Core. Supplements are available to qualified adopters. Please consult your local sales representative for details.

FOR THE INSTRUCTOR Instructor’s Edition Designed just for instructors, the In- structor’s Edition includes a visual walk-through that il- lustrates the key pedagogical features of the text, as well as the media and supplements that accompany it. Use this handy tool to learn quickly about the many options this text provides to keep your class engaging and informative.

Instructor’s Resource Manual with Test Bank The updated and revised Instructor’s Resource Manual for the fourth edi- tion, prepared by Joanne Ziembo-Vogl of Grand Valley State University, provides detailed outlines, key terms and concepts, discussion topics and student activities, and criti- cal thinking questions that will help you more effectively communicate with your students, while allowing you to strengthen your coverage of course material.

PowerLecture This instructor resource includes Microsoft® PowerPoint® lecture slides with graphics from the text,

making it easy for you to assemble, edit, publish, and pre- sent lectures customized for your course.

PowerPoint Slides These handy Microsoft PowerPoint slides, which outline the chapters of the main text in a classroom-ready presentation, will help you in making your lectures engaging and in reaching your visually oriented students. The presentations are available for download on the password-protected website and can also be obtained by emailing your local Cengage Learning representative.

eBank Lesson Plans The Lesson Plans, created by Aaron Peeks of Elon University, bring accessible, masterful sug- gestions to every lesson. The Lesson Plans include sample syllabi, learning objectives, lecture notes, discussion topics, in-class activities, a detailed lecture outline, and assign- ments. Lesson Plans are available on the PowerLecture re- source and the instructor website, or you can access them by emailing your local representative and asking for a download of the eBank files.

WebTutor™ Jumpstart your course with customizable, rich, text-specific content within your Course Management Sys- tem. Whether you want to Web-enable your class or put an entire course online, WebTutor™ delivers. Web Tutor™ offers a wide array of resources, including media assets, test bank, practice quizzes, and additional study aids. Visit to learn more.

Classroom Activities for Criminal Justice This valuable booklet, which is available to adopters of any Wadsworth criminal justice text, offers instructors the best of the best in criminal justice classroom activities. Containing both tried-and-true favorites and exciting new projects, its ac- tivities are drawn from across the spectrum of criminal justice subjects (including introduction to criminal justice, criminology, corrections, criminal law, policing, and juve- nile justice) and can be customized to fit any course. Nov- ice and seasoned instructors alike will find this booklet a powerful tool to stimulate classroom engagement.

The Wadsworth Criminal Justice Resource Center, www Designed with the instructor in mind, this website provides information about W adsworth’s technology and teaching solutions, as well as several fea- tures created specifically for today’s criminal justice student. Supreme Court updates, timelines, and hot-topic polling can all be used to supplement in-class assignments and discus- sions. You’ll also find a wealth of links to careers and news in criminal justice, book-specific sites, and much more.

FOR THE STUDENT Companion Website, siegel The new companion website provides many c hapter-specific resources, including chapter outlines,

xx Preface

learning objectives, glossary, flash cards, crossword puz- zles, and t utorial quizzing.

Criminal Justice Media Library This engaging resource p rovides students with more than 300 ways to investigate current topics, career choices, and critical concepts.

Study Guide An extensive student guide has been devel- oped for this edition by Bernadette Holmes of Norfolk State University. Because students learn in different ways, the Study Guide includes a variety of pedagogical aids that will help them do their best, as well as integrated art and f igures from the main text. Each text chapter is outlined and s ummarized, major terms and figures are defined, and self-tests are provided for review.

Handbook of Selected Supreme Court Cases, Third E dition This supplementary handbook covers nearly 40 landmark cases, each of which includes a full case citation, an introduction, a summary from WestLaw, excerpts from the case, and the decision. The updated edition includes Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, Roper v. Simmons, Ring v. Arizona, Atkins v. Virginia, Illinois v. Caballes, and much more.

CLeBook CLeBook enables students to access Cengage Learning textbooks in an easy-to-use online format. High- light, take notes, bookmark, search your text, and (in some titles) link directly into multimedia. CLeBook combines the best aspects of paper books and ebooks in one package.

Acknowledgments The preparation of this book would not have been possible without the aid of my colleagues who helped by reviewing the previous editions and gave me important suggestions for improvement.

REVIEWERS FOR THE FOURTH EDITION Yvonne Downs, Hibert College Michael Hallett, University of North Florida

Monica Jayroe, Faulkner University Charles Ochie, Albany State University Kay Kei-Ho Pih, California State University Northridge

REVIEWERS OF PREVIOUS EDITIONS John Broderick, Stonehill College Stephen J. Brodt, Ball State University Doris Chu, Arkansas State University Dana C. De Witt, Chadron State College Dorinda L. Dowis, Columbus State University Yvonne Downs, Hibert College Sandra Emory, University of New Mexico Dorothy M. Goldsborough, Chaminade University Robert G. Hewitt, Edison Community College Catherine F. Lavery, Sacred Heart University Danielle Liautaud-Watkins, William Paterson University Larry A. Long, Pioneer Pacific College Heather Melton, University of Utah Adam Rafalovich, Texas Technology University Ronald Sopenhoff, Brookdale Community College Mark A. Stelter, Montgomery College Tom Tomlinson, Western Illinois University Matt Vetter, Saint Mary’s University Scott Wagner, Columbus State Community College Jay R. Williams, Duke University

My colleagues at Cengage Learning have done their typically outstanding job of aiding me in the preparation of this text and putting up with my yearly angst. Carolyn Henderson Meier, my scintillating editor, helped guide this project from start to finish. Shelley Murphy, que es fabu- loso y fantástico, is a terrific developmental editor I cannot live without. My BFF Linda Rill did her usual outstanding job on photo research. Aaron Downey, the book’s produc- tion editor, was professional, helpful, and kind. I really ap- preciate the help of Connie Day, a wonderful copyeditor. The sensational Christy Frame is an extraordinary produc- tion manager, and the incomparable Michelle Williams is my favorite marketing manager.

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