Argument Analysis Essay(3-4 Pages)2 Sources

Table of Contents

Argument Analysis Essay

Prompt: Write an “academic argument” (Ch. 17) in which you make a claim about the effectiveness of the rhetorical devices (Pathos, Ethos and Logos) used in the  “Community College Budget Proposal Response” to the “establishment of a fully online college.” Include a description of the “Kairos” or rhetorical situation (24-25) that lead to the response, and the organization (FACCC (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.) that wrote the response letter. Quote and cite (MLA format) specific examples from the letter and Ch. 1-4 as support (Ch. 22).

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Argument Analysis Essay

Optional reading: the original budget proposal (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. to which FACCC is responding.


  • Argument analysis using the two links: Online Community College Proposal and Community College Budget Proposal Response
  • Minimum 2 quotes from response letter (MLA in-text cited)
  • Minimum 1 quote from proposal
  • Minimum 1 quote from any chapter from 1-4 (MLA in-text cited)
  • MLA Works Cited List
    • Length: 3-4 pages
    • 12 point font, 1 inch margins, double-spaced
    • Title (unique–e.g. not “Essay 1”)
    • Name on document (not just file name)
      • Format for file name: First initial, last name, Literacy Narrative (e.g. PGallagher Literacy Narrative)
      • Note: Do not share a google doc with me–download and attach as instructed

Faculty Association of California Community Colleges | 1823 11th Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 916.447.8555 | Fax 916.447.0726 | | | @FACCC

January 26, 2018

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Hon. Phil Ting, Chair

Assembly Budget Committee

State Capitol Room 6026

Sacramento, CA 95814

Re: Community College Budget Proposal


Dear Assemblymember Ting:

On behalf of the Faculty Association of California Community Colleges (FACCC), I want to

express our appreciation to you for your leadership in crafting the community college budget.

We are also grateful to Governor Brown for his vision and commitment to stabilizing the state’s

finances and for his demonstrated support of our institutions. FACCC would particularly like to

commend the Governor for supporting the 10.93 percent community college share of the

Proposition 98 split in the 2018-19 proposal. Adherence to the statutory split allows both

community colleges and K-12 to appropriately plan for the coming year while also removing

competition for resources between the two segments.

FACCC has taken the following positions on the specifics of the Governor’s January Budget


2.51% COLA; $60 million for growth

Response: FACCC supports and appreciates both.

$46 million to fund the California College Promise as contained in AB 19 [(Santiago) of 2017]

Response: While FACCC supports a state buy-down of student fees, it does not agree with the

provision in AB 19 that restricts these funds to colleges that participate in Guided Pathways. This

is inconsistent with the Guided Pathways legislation which provides discretion to local academic

senates on whether to adopt this program.

Similarly, FACCC notes that elements of student financial aid were historically funded outside

of Proposition 98. We request the Legislature consider other programmatic improvements for

community colleges with the $46 million, like increasing full-time faculty or part-time faculty

equity, office hours, or health benefits, and fund AB 19 from non-98 sources.

Faculty Association of California Community Colleges | 1823 11th Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 916.447.8555 | Fax 916.447.0726 | | | @FACCC

Hon. Phil Ting

Community College Budget

Page Two

$120 million ($20 million ongoing; $100 million one-time) to establish a fully online

community college

Response: While FACCC fully endorses the goal of expanding educational access to working

adults who are traditionally older than our full-time students, it respectfully opposes this proposal

and would redirect all or part of these funds to the Online Education Institute.

Despite the agreed upon goal of serving working adults age 25-34 (with the possibility of

expanding the target to age 65) who have attained a high school diploma and possibly some

college, but no college degree, there is no evidence from the Governor’s proposal that the

intended population in California has been contacted through such mechanisms as surveys or

focus groups to warrant the development of a new, fully online college. For the substantial sums

proposed, it is inappropriate to draw a conclusion exclusively from a limited number of out-of-

state studies.

This concern extends not just to the need for a new college, but also to whether the target

population has sufficient access to technology. While smart phones offer evidence of

connectivity, they do not necessarily serve as the best mechanism for distance education.

Moreover, FACCC believes this separate online college will compete with existing institutions.

Even under the Governor’s proposed funding formula, a diversion of student enrollment to the

online college could drain resources from our 114 colleges.

Paradoxically, in the effort to foster educational inclusion to a new group of students—many of

whom are undoubtedly struggling to keep pace with ever-changing technology—we would, in

fact, be segregating them from the larger body of campus offerings. FACCC believes that

distance education through online courses is an appropriate strategy that stands together with

hybrid and in-class instruction. A fully online college that exists outside of our established

institutions limits the student understanding and potential of what higher education has to offer.

If the state’s emphasis is on student success as defined by completion, this online proposal is not

the way to go. San Jose State University’s experiment with Massive Open Online Courses found

the success rates lower than traditional courses with those most able to benefit outside the target

underrepresented audience. In moving forward with this discussion, we should not only consider

the experience of San Jose State University, but also how critical support services, like DSPS

and EOPS could participate. Without serious attention to whether student success is a priority for

this college, we are liable to develop a model that falls far short of its goal.

Public support for California Community Colleges has been overwhelmingly positive, largely

because they are instruments of local government which contribute to community identity. By

definition, a state-run program outside the realm of local control detracts from that local identity

and could confuse the public on the purpose of the institutions.

Faculty Association of California Community Colleges | 1823 11th Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 916.447.8555 | Fax 916.447.0726 | | | @FACCC

Hon. Phil Ting

Community College Budget

Page Three

FACCC also opposes any diminution of minimum qualifications for the faculty, and would

oppose a “meet and confer” process for working conditions.

The Legislature should redirect all or part of this money to the successful Online Education

Institute and use these additional resources to prioritize lifelong learning for those age 25-65. In

this era of maximizing spending efficiencies, FACCC believes this would be far more effective

than developing a new college whose start-up expenses, including accreditation, would be

extremely high, and whose ongoing costs would likely detract from our existing colleges.

$175 million for transition costs to a new funding formula

While FACCC recognizes the limitations of the current formula, it is mindful that any change not

solely based on student enrollment is liable to result in per-student differences between districts.

The inevitable result of this disparity would be a call for the lower revenue districts to equalize

with their higher revenue counterparts, leading back to the current dynamic.

Nonetheless, FACCC believes that a blended formula based on incentives is worth evaluating

provided the correct incentives are chosen. Without strict adherence to the percentage division of

50/25/25, FACCC would recommend a division based on the following:

A) At least 50% based on enrollment as this is the best and most equitable barometer upon which to build a funding model;

B) Half the remaining percentage devoted to education of lower income and underrepresented students based on a blended formula of: 1) Promise Grant and Pell

Grants; 2) Enrollment of foster youth, welfare-to-work, active military and military

veterans, and regional unemployment rate; 3) Participation in DSPS,

EOPS/CARE/NextUp, CalWORKs and other statewide support programs.

C) Final percentage devoted to recognized practices that contribute to student success. This would be a blended formula of a district’s progress toward: 1) 75/25 full- to part-time

faculty ratio; 2) Part-time faculty equity (including office hours and health benefits); 3)

Academic counselor to student ratios.

From this formula, the Chancellor’s Office could measure such outcomes as attainment of

degrees and certificates on a regular interval and propose research-based adjustments as needed.

Categorical Programs

FACCC opposes a wholesale decategorization of programs, but understands the need to examine

the track record of categoricals through the policy process. Many of the categorical programs in

student services and part-time faculty were created to fill a need that was not sufficiently

addressed at the local level. Support services like EOPS have stood the test of time because they

have demonstrated accountability and deserve state resources for their record of success.

Faculty Association of California Community Colleges | 1823 11th Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 916.447.8555 | Fax 916.447.0726 | | | @FACCC

Hon. Phil Ting

Community College Budget

Page Four

The part-time faculty categoricals continue to serve a need, but have been so underfunded as to

hamper their effectiveness. Decategorization of those programs does not cure the problems of

insufficient compensation, office hours, or health benefits. Newer categoricals, like the Student

Success and Support Program, deserve higher levels of scrutiny specifically because they have

not withstood the test of time and may be subject to corrective adjustments where appropriate.

Capital Outlay

FACCC strongly supported Proposition 51 on the November 2016 ballot which promised voters

$2 billion infrastructure investment in our community colleges. While the proposed budget funds

five new and 15 ongoing capital projects, there are still more shovel-ready projects which can

benefit from this money. A delay in construction will likely result in increased costs and

diminished voter confidence in future bond financing.

FACCC would also like to draw your attention to the compelling priorities that are missing from

the 2018-19 budget proposal:

Funds to increase the ratio of full-time faculty. FACCC is grateful for the 2015-16

augmentation of $62.3 million for this purpose and urges a second installment to make further

progress toward the 75% goal of credit classroom instruction taught by full-time faculty

[Education Code Section 87482.6(a)]. Although our students are asked to give a full-time effort

toward their studies, they are denied access to full-time faculty. The latest published figures

show only 56.4% of credit instruction is currently taught by full-timers.

This is also noted in an accreditation standard for community colleges which reads:

III.A.7. The institution maintains a sufficient number of qualified faculty, which includes full time

faculty and may include part time and adjunct faculty, to assure the fulfillment of faculty

responsibilities essential to the quality of educational programs and services to achieve

institutional mission and purposes.

Support for part-time faculty through pay equity, and health benefits, and office hours.

Although the community college system is dependent upon part-time faculty labor, it is

unwilling to recognize or compensate them for their contribution. While FACCC appreciates the

increase to the Part-Time Faculty Office Hours program in the current year budget, the fund is

still woefully deficient. It is time for the state to recognize the value that the over 40,000 part-

time faculty professionals bring to the California Community Colleges by fully funding all three

of these programs.

Like assessment, placement, and orientation, access to full-time faculty and professionalization

of part-time faculty compensated office hours, health benefits, and pay equity should be

considered functions of student success. Students at all colleges should expect to interact with

full-time faculty and fully supported part-time faculty. This requires both attention and resources

from the state.

Faculty Association of California Community Colleges | 1823 11th Street, Sacramento, CA 95811 916.447.8555 | Fax 916.447.0726 | | | @FACCC

Hon. Phil Ting

Community College Budget

Page Five

Professional development. With increasing advancements in the disciplines offered at our

institutions, and with the new wave of faculty hiring, it is time to reconsider the limitation of

professional development for specific purposes and allow it to be locally determined for

individual faculty needs. Building a world-class institution of higher education means allowing

faculty to connect with their peers in professional conferences to advance their subject matter

expertise and ability to perform their jobs. This should be a standardized part of the budget upon

which our faculty can depend.

Student services (EOPS, DSPS, CalWORKs) and mental health. FACCC is grateful for the

restoration of all these programs and urges consideration of programmatic expansion where

appropriate. Mental health services are also a priority for the faculty, and consideration should be

given to supplementing the $4.5 million one-time funds in the current budget.

Student Services (NextUp). The expansion of the NextUp program for foster youth has caused a

statewide deficiency of $5 million, which should be addressed in the 2018-19 budget.

Veterans Centers. As a cosponsor and founding member of the coalition sponsoring the annual

Veterans Summit, FACCC encourages additional resources for active military and military

veteran students.

FACCC is once again grateful to you for your consideration of our positions and to the Governor

for his support of community colleges. Please do not hesitate to contact me with any questions.


Jonathan Lightman, CAE

Executive Director

cc: Hon. Kevin McCarty, Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 2 Chair

Hon. Jay Obernolte, Assembly Budget Committee Vice Chair

Assembly Budget Subcommittee No. 2 on Education Finance

Lark Park, Office of Governor Brown

Mark Martin, Assembly Budget Committee Consultant

Katie Sperla, Republican Consultant

Mónica Henestroza, Office of Speaker Rendon

Christian Osmena, Vice Chancellor, California Community Colleges

Maritza Urquiza, Department of Finance

Edgar Cabral, Legislative Analyst’s Office

Lizette Navarette, Community College League of California

Julie Bruno, President, Academic Senate for California Community Colleges

Courtney Cooper, President, Student Senate for California Community Colleges

Online Community College Proposal

K e y Challenges and Opportunities

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there are currently 2.5 million Califomians ages 25 to 34 whose highest educational attainment is either high school or some college’ at the same time that a growing number of middle class jobs require increased education and training. About 80 percent of these economically and educationally stranded adults are working,- and 49 percent of these adults are Hispanic.’ Despite the essential nature of postseeondary education, many of these adults are unserved or underserved by higher education in Califomia and could benetrt from more high-quality, affordable, and flexible opportunities to acquire the knowledge and skills needed to achieve greater economic and social mobility.

Figure 1. Nearly half of Californians ages 25 to 34 with only high school, GED, or some college are Hispanic”

Californians Ages 25-34 with High School, GED, or Some College (No Degree)









798,106 (31%)

Whi te


1,233,930 (49%)

H 73,263


Asian Other Hispanic

The development of an online college with programs that are compatible California’s workforce needs could provide working adults with flexible educational opportunities that can increase their wages and improve their economic mobility. Creating these opportunities also ensure working Califomians have an altemative to high- cost online credentials, certificates, and associates degrees offered by non-public, sometimes unaccredited, and out-of-state institutions that can cost 7 to 9 times more per unit than the California Community Colleges’, which can leave many Califomians with burdensome debt and poor employment outcomes.

Figure 2. There are over 100,000 students enrolled in online classes in private California institutions’

Undergraduate Enrollment in Distance Education in California 2- and 4-Year

Institutions (Fall 2015) 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000

0 Enrolled


• Private non-for-profit

• Private for-profit

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000

0 Enrolled

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 1 15,569 ̂ ^ ^ ^ 1

70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000

0 Enrolled in Exclusively Distance Enrolled in Some Distance

Education Education Courses

Prepared by the Department of Finance, in consultation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office January 2018

High-quality, affordable, and flexible educational options are also critical to many individuals who were displaced hy job losses triggered by the Great Recession, where corresponding growth during the recovery did not equitably restore access to new jobs. Califomians have had a difficult time recovering from the Great Recession, but those with an associate’s degree made more money and fared better in the recovery than those with only a high school degree or some college.’ Labor force participation remains low among the working age population, and economists believe this is partially due to a skills mismatch. According to data from the Economic Policy Institute, 60 percent of jobs created during the economic recovery (2010-2014) went to men versus 40 percent of jobs that went to women.** Additionally, research from the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce shows the availability of good jobs for workers without bachelor’s degrees are shifting from traditional blue-collar industries to skilled-services industries that tend to require at least some postseeondary education and training.” Coupled with data from Buming Glass demonstrating that more than 8 in 10 middle-skill jobs require digital skills, key individuals left out of the recovery can benefit from both greater educational opportunity and digital skills that can be acquired through effective online modalities.'” Califomia is currently at unemployment levels only seen near the end of an expansion. The risk of economic uncertainty from a recession and other economic factors underscore the importance of increasing working adults’ access to higher education.

Figure 3. Californians with associate’s degrees made higher wages and fared better in the recovery”

Median Personal Income by Education Attainment for Californians Ages 25-34 (in 2016

dollars) $40,000







To date, Califomia does not offer a flexible online experience that is designed to address the unique and diverse needs of students and that ensures program offerings are leading to knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the current and future workforce. Current online education initiatives that exist in Califomia have helped to increase the number of courses offered online and supported professional development for developing and teaching online courses. However, these initiatives by design are not a substitute for comprehensively addressing system-wide barriers needed to effectively serve working Califomians. Supporting strong outcomes for working adults requires a new approach designed around reducing barriers to successful knowledge and skills acquisition. Through the launch of a new, fully online college, the state has an opportunity to meet this challenge by providing stmcture and flexibility inherent to online education and other non-traditional classroom- based settings, leveraging the growing research base of learning sciences in program design, and testing and customizing non-academic supports needed to help ensure success.

Prepared by the DepartmeiU of Finance, in considlation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office Januaiy 2018


Figure 4. There is a trend of improving online course completion rates at the California Community Colleges”

Statewide Online Course Completion Rates at C C C s , 2013-14 to 2016-17

2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17

This effort also comes at a time as a large share of the American population, including key parts of the college’s target population, demonstrate gains in Internet adoption and home broadband use. As of 2016, 81 percent of high school-educated adults use the Internet, and that rises to 94 percent for those with some college.” According to a Public Utilities Commission 2016 annual report, approximately 95 percent of Califomia households have wired broadband services available to them, though this does not reflect actual utilization of home broadband.” Survey data from the Pew Charitable Trusts reveal that more Americans have become smartphone-enabled over time, which opens up new ways to reach and deliver services. Moreover, Americans with less than a bachelor’s degree and low-income Americans are more likely to rely on smartphones for Intemet access, and these phones may enable Intemet access to computers through hotspot technology.” Additionally, according to a 2012 Digital Diaspora report, data from Pennsylvania about recent immigrants show unprecedented technical fluency and comfort with technology and that these attitudes and patterns of usage held steady across an extraordinary diversity of ethnic, linguistic, educational, and socioeconomic backgrounds.”‘

Existing Online Education Efforts

Efforts to build a new fully online college complement existing efforts in Califomia. Califomia Community Colleges (CCCs) currently provide a wide array of online education offerings. Many of the 114 community colleges provide over 13,000 online courses available to students,” and roughly 800,000 students enrolled in online courses in 2015-16.” In addition, the Govemor and the CCCs have piloted multiple programs through the Online Education Initiative over the past five years aimed at expanding the ability of individual CCCs to have greater capacity to support online course and professional development. These programs include:

1. Online Education Initiative. The Online Education Initiative has been a collaborative effort to build out the social and technological inffastmcture for online education at the individual community college- level. They have provided common infrastructure at no or low-cost for all CCCs, which has included system-wide resources (such as a common course management system, system infrastmcture, training for the adoption of a common course management system, online proctoring, plagiarism detection, course design standards, and help desk support) and centralized support services for students (such as online tutoring, counseling, and help desk support).

The Online Education Initiative has worked to knock down barriers for enrollment across CCCs through its Course Exchange pilot. The Course Exchange’s goal is to provide a seamless path for students to register for online courses across colleges without requiring separate application, financial aid, and matriculation processes.

Prepared by the Department of Finance, in consultation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office Januaiy 2018


The Online Education Initiative supports groups of teaching faculty with the training and tools needed develop online courses, including a peer-supported instructional network that provides feedback to individual instructors, enhancing professional development opportunities for faculty with little or no fonnal pedagogy or training in online delivery. This learning network presents a powerful opportunity for faculty on campus to build or improve their online teaching capacity and add to the inventory of online courses available to CCC students.

The Online Education Initiative has been critical in providing all local campuses with the means and incentives to engage with teaching and student support practices offered through an online platfonn, but each college has been varied in its engagement with and adoption of the Online Education Initiative resources. For example, though most of the 114 colleges have adopted the common course management system, only 68 colleges have adopted the 24×7 online tutoring, 58 colleges have adopted the online counseling platfonn, and only 17 colleges use the online plagiarism detection tool.'” Only six colleges are participating in the Course Exchange pilot, and there are currently only about forty course sections available through the pilot.'” Much remains to be done for the Online Education Initiative to achieve scale in its ability to offer completely online Associate Degrees for Transfer programs or remove the impediment to students by offering access to bottleneck “gateway” courses important to transfer.

2. Califomia Virtual College. The Califomia Virtual College is a complete catalog of online courses offered by postseeondary schools in Califomia. Students can filter courses by segment (CCC, UC, CSU, independent), can choose Associate Degree for Transfer courses, and can search for specific classes by zip code. However, a student cannot register for a course on the California Virtual College website, and little information is available distinguish course quality and outcomes.

3. Zero-Textbook-Cost Degrees and Open Educational Resources (PER). The Zero-Textbook-Cost Degrees program‘s goal is to reduce the cost of education for students by developing, implementing, and sustaining Zero-Textbook-Cost Degree pathways. Each of the courses in these pathways wi l l have altemative instmctional materials and methodology that are at zero cost. This can include OER materials, which are high-quality teaching, teaming, and research resources that are in the public domain. Currently, the Zero-Textbook-Cost Degrees program is in the planning stages, but the first five Zero-Textbook-Cost Degree programs wi l l begin in 2018, and another twenty are slated to hegin in 2019.

Features of Online Education Proposal

To increase access to postseeondary education for up to 2.5 million Califomians, the Department of Finance, in consultation with the Califomia Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office, proposes the creation of an independent, local online community college that would be under the jurisdiction of a newly established, independent district under the Chancellor’s Office. The college would be required to seek accreditation and meet requirements for students to become eligible for federal financial aid and state financial aid.

The college would be developed and guided by principles and procedures established by the Chancellor’s Office. These guiding principles should include:

• Offering working adults additional access to higher education opportunities with labor market value. • Providing working adults with flexible course scheduling and start times. • Supporting student success by developing and implementing innovative teaching and student support

methodologies and technologies. • Enhancing system-wide student success efforts by using the college’s innovative teaching and student

support methodologies and technologies to infonn professional development opportunities available to the rest of the system.

Prepared by the Department of Finance, in consultation with the CCC Chancellor’.? Office January 2018


• Aligning the college’s efforts with the broader goals outlined in the System’s Vision for Success and holding the college accountable for its students’ outcomes.

The mission of the online college would be to create an organized system of accessible, high-quality online content, courses, and programs focused on providing credible certification and credentials compatible with vocational and educational needs for Califomians who are not cumently accessing higher education. Content, courses, and programs developed by the college could provide support for careers in growing industries, including advanced manufacturing, healthcare, the service sector, in-home support services, and child development, among other areas. While any Califomia resident would be able to attend the college, the college’s targeted demographic would be on adults who do not yet have a postseeondary credential and whose schedules do not fit into traditional, classroom-hased settings. The goal of the online college is not to compete for students who are receiving an in-person education, but to provide further access to a high-quality and affordable altemative for students who are unable to access or obtain an education in a traditional setting.

The college wi l l hire faculty, student support service experts, and other staff to support the unique and diverse needs of students accessing the college’s programs and to ensure student success in the current and future workforce. Initially, the college wi l l meet and confer with representatives of its employees, and as the college becomes more established, it wi l l transition to collective bargaining with representatives of its employees.

Leveraging the momentum of the Strong Workforce Program, it is vital for the college to work closely with other agencies, industry partners, and experts to ensure the success of the college. This includes collaboration with other entities, such as the Califomia Labor and Workforce Development Agency and the Califomia Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation, to incorporate strategies to provide immigrants and fonnerly incarcerated Californians with educational opportunities. The college wi l l also work through elements identified by Connecting Credentials as needed to support working adult students. These elements include, but are not limited to, financial aid, dealing with working learners’ prior educational debts that may impede release of transcripts and credits, pathway navigational help, contextualized academic preparation, navigation of family needs and other supports, and coaching/mentoring. The online college should help provide clarity for the targeted group of students to easily access the college’s content, courses, and programs, and as a result, the college w i l l collaborate with community-based organizations to identify strategies to apprise the underserved leamers of the opportunity to enroll in the online college. Furthermore, as the online college builds out its infrastmcture, it should keep in mind its capacity for expansion and consider that the UC and CSU systems may wish to partner with the college to integrate or create their own programs in the future.

The key activities of the proposed online college would include:

1. Expanding working adults’ access to higher education. The college wi l l offer at least three program pathways in the first three years of program implementation that is developed exclusively to serve the population of students not yet accessing postseeondary education or without their first industry-valued industry credential. The college wi l l plan to enroll students by the last quarter of 2019.

2. Focusing on student outcomes with the creation of new content and technology. The college’s initial priority of activities include:

a. Creating new online programs that are aligned with industry needs and have labor market relevance.

b. Establishing competency-based educational opportunities that recognize a student’s prior leaming and help a student advance toward a credential.

c. Supplementing the Registered Apprenticeship program and the Califomia Apprenticeship Initiative training, and creating joumey-worker upskilling valued by the labor and employer communities.

d. Identifying opportunities for short-tenn, stackable credentials, and industry certifications with labor market value.

Prepared by the DeparlineiU of Finance, in consiiltalion with the CCC Chancel/orOffice .Januaiy 2018


e. Developing or adapting technology that is mobile-friendly. f. Developing a Research and Development Unit that is focused on leveraging current and future

leaming sciences technology, that assesses data metrics within the technological infrastmcture to gauge student progress in a course or pathway, infomrs instmctional and support strategies, and improves on the functionality of the underlying technology.

g. Re-designing transcripts to link certificates, courses, and competencies while providing them in a digital, verifiable fonnat to students.

h. Identifying shortcomings in the student experience for unserved and underserved students and develop technological and programmatic solutions to address the gap.

i . Distributing gains in data and leaming science and effective technology-enabled tools and resources throughout the Califomia Community Colleges.

3. Focusing on student outcomes and reducing student costs by aligning with the broader goals outlined in the System’s Vision for Success. To avoid duplicating existing programs offered by community colleges, the online college wi l l be infonned by, aligned with, and leverage the programs and activities of the Chancellor’s Office, including the Online Education Initiative and Integrated Technology portfolio, the Zero-Textbook-Cost Degrees program and Open Educational Resources, and the Guided Pathways Model framework. This wi l l include the following activities and practices:

a. Organize newly developed content into programs under the Guided Pathways Model framework.

b. Building on the existing social and technological infrastructure for students, instmctors, and administrators.

c. Enhancing system-wide student success efforts by using the college’s innovative teaching and student support methodologies and technologies to infonn professional development opportunities available to the rest of the system through the Online Education Initiative and/or Institutional Effectiveness Partnership Initiative.

Funding for the local, online college would be supported by Proposition 98 funds, with $20 million in ongoing funds and $100 million in one-time funds that would be available over a seven-year period. Ongoing funds wi l l support the ongoing operations, such as licensing and maintenance of technology, professional development and training, the continuous assessment of student program pathways, and salaries paid to college staff. One-time funding would support start-up costs including, but not limited to: roadmap development and capital investment costs for scalable technology infrastructure development to support the instruction, 24×7 technology support, continuous improvement modeling, and administrative functions; the design and development of a Research and Development Unit which may include fully-supported virtual and mobile labs in order to assess leaming science, establishment of key partnerships with entities with a physical presence (e.g., libraries, community college labs and facilities), and demonstration pilots to test and refine technology and program development to ensure greater effectiveness and scalability; support for the development of core functions such as mapping the student experience, developing and testing a new fee model, establishing a student outreach plan, and establishing key employer partners; development of seven-year business plan with key milestones, indicators, and outcomes; establishing business processes, accreditation planning, legal support, development of initial and long-term staffing plan, personnel policies and procedures, establishment of responsive metrics and indicators driving student success to infonn design; and scaling efforts over the seven-year start-up period. Costs for the Chancellor’s Office to provide guidance and direction to the college wi l l be supported by the General Fund.

In addition, consistent with the Governor’s Budget proposal for a Student-Focused Funding Fonnula, apportionment funding for the online college would take into account student enrollment and the number of underrepresented students enrolled in the college, as well as incentivizing the online college to focus on student success. The college wi l l not impact traditional community colleges’ enrollment because its enrollment base w i l l be working adults who are not currently accessing higher education.

Prepared by the Department of Finance, in consultation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office Januaiy 2018


To facilitate program stackability into credit-bearing courses that can expand students’ opportunities for future leaming and successive wage gains, the college would be expected to leverage and develop articulation agreements or develop new ones with other Califomia Community Colleges, the Califomia State University, the University of Califomia, and other accredited public and independent institutions where applicable to articulate coherent and complete pathways for students. For example, this entity could collaborate with regional consortiums to create degree programs that are industry-driven and relevant to regional needs.

There could be system-wide efficiencies gained through the online college, such as enhanced utilization of resources for creating online course content and enhanced professional development opportunities. However, it is important to note that not every aspect of this system can achieve economies of scale. In addition to online student support services, the online college could collaborate with other community colleges, other education providers, community-based organizations, employers, unions, and libraries, to enable students of the online college to access in-person support services at other physical locations as needed, including use of a library, computer lab, other labs, and tutoring services.

The online college could continue with the current fee-per-unit model, but it would also have the flexibility to offer an experimental, subseription-based flat rate for a set time period (or aeademic tenn). Under such a model, students could take as many courses as desired during that period. Regardless of the college’s fee structure, students would be eligible for fee waivers that mimic the Califomia College Promise Grants and College Promise fee waivers available pursuant Chapter 735, Statutes of 2017 (AB 19). The online college wil l also consider developing a revenue sharing model to allow any increases in revenues over costs to help accelerate the adoption of new learning technologies for the benefit of all CCC campuses.

Here is additional detail on key activities expected to be perfonned by the online college:

1. Establishing competency-based education components. According to the U.S. Department of Education, “transitioning away from seat time, in favor of a structure that creates flexibility, (competency-based leaming) allows students to progress as they demonstrate mastery of academic content, regardless of time, place, or pace of leaming. Competency-based strategies provide flexibility in the way that credit can be eamed or awarded, and provide students with personalized leaming opportunities… This type of leaming leads to better student engagement because the content is relevant to each student and tailored to their unique needs. It also leads to better student outcomes because the pace of learning is customized to each student.” Competency-based education incorporates the knowledge and skills students acquired at a prior time of their lives. Examples of prior leaming include prior military service, workplace training including apprenticeships, and approved certificates.

Competencies are developed by appropriate faculty and employers and are focused on knowledge and skills that a student must demonstrate to pass a course and to ultimately cam a credential. Once identified, content, courses, and assessments are then mapped to these competencies. Students who are able to leam by demonstrating mastery of skills wi l l receive credit to advance toward a credential. For students who are older and already have experience, this practice can be useful for more quickly attaining credits.

2. Identifying opportunities for short-term, stackable badges and industiy certifications valued for employability. As students make their way through a program pathway, they are leaming valuable skills and gaining a knowledge base. Enabling students to cam badges and industry certifications as they move along a pathway can provide a short-term resume boost for a student, as well as indicate to the student and employers the skills and competencies that have been acquired through coursework. For students who are already working, they may see incremental benefits from a certification, such as a pay raise or promotional opportunity. While these benefits may not have the same demonstrable effect as an associate’s or baccalaureate degree, they still have a significant and more immediate impact for a working student that is critical for maintaining motivation.

Preptired hy the DeparlmenI of Finance, in con.siillalion with the CCC Chancellor ‘.v Office .January 2018


Ultimately, these badges and certifications should be stackable toward a degree.

3. Developing or adapting technology that is mobile-friendly. While a growing number of Californians have gained access to the Intemet over time, there is variation in how much of that usage is on computers versus tablets or mobile phones. There are some students who would benefit from a technological platfonn that is mobile friendly. In addition to increased ease in cheeking for assignments and reviewing messages from instmctors or administrators, a mobile-friendly platfonn might make it easier for students to consume some of their education or student supports while on-the-go. For example, students could watch short lessons on their lunch break from work or any other times have available in their busy lives. Altematively, a student could listen to an audio version of a tutoring session to leam a concept while running enands or while their children nap—a space that podcasts currently fill for many people. While mobile technology may not be ideal or even appropriate for certain assignments, there is still significant value to recognizing it as a tool for consuming infonnation, especially for students who may not have readily access to a computer with an Internet connection or cannot physically get to a campus.

4. Building a Research and Development Unit, that is focused on integrating data metrics into the technological platforms and reviewing the data to ensure pilot models and technologies used by the college are effective. An objective of the online college should be creating a culture of continuous quality improvement for faculty, staff, and administrators that is student-centered and focused on the science of learning to ensure that the technology used by the college is working for the communities it is intended to serve. This could be called the Research and Development Unit. The unit could focus on building in data metrics that measure student progress throughout a course or pathway, trigger faculty or tutor interventions, and assess the user friendliness or accessibility of the technology. It could monitor and review data, and results that would be shared with faculty, staff, administrators, and content developers to infonn continual improvement. The Unit can also monitor the leaming and teaching outcomes that emerge from an experimental, subscription-based funding model, which de-links students and teachers from the week-to-week schedule of an academic tenn. The Unit can be a separate research and data analytics team within the online college, or its objectives can be built into the responsibilities of other staff.

A Research and Development Unit could also build out artificial intelligence-based student support services. One example is at Georgia Tech, which has an online master’s program for computer science. They have a concept that is analogous to a “Smart FAQ” which uses machine learning to catalog questions asked by students and provide answers for the questions that are most frequently asked. The Unit can establish demonstration projects through simulations conducted through virtual and mobile labs.

5. Re-designing transcripts to link certificates, courses, and competencies, and providing them in a digital, verifiable format that students can quickly access. With an increased focus on certificates and competencies, transcripts should be re-designed to include this information, along with coursework. This w i l l keep track of a student’s entire body of leaming in one place and wi l l more easily demonstrate to employers the multiple ways that leaming has occurred. With a more decentralized network of classes through the online college, it w i l l be vital to seamlessly produce transcripts with courses and certificates that cut across colleges and/or segments. Any bamiers to that should be identified and addressed.

In addition, digital transcripts that are verifiable, tamper-proof, and easily accessible are on the rise. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has developed an open-source toolkit called Blockcerts, which any developer or school can use to issue and verify blockchain-based educational credentials.” These digital transcripts would give greater agency to students, allowing them to quickly share their

Prepared by the DeparlmenI of Finance, in consultation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office January 2018


infonnation with employers and schools, and may reduce or eliminate some of the cost for students of accessing transcripts.

6. Building on existing social and technological infrastructure for students, instructors, and administrators. This includes building up the common course management system platfonn for online classes and course content; including the new online program pathways as part of the Califomia Virtual Campus; investing in free, online educational materials (including basic skills resources) through the Open Educational Resources and Zero-Textbook-Cost Degrees; building out student support services— such as online tutoring, counseling, help desk support, easy communication channels between students and faculty—that are focused on the student experience; and fleshing out other foundational features of an online experience (proctoring, student authentication, plagiarism detection). In addition to online student support services, the college could collaborate with other educational entities to expand students’ access to in-person student services, including use of the library, computer lab, and tutoring.

7. Informing professional development and training opportunities for faculty to develop and improve high-quality course content through the specific lens of online education. Faculty should be supported in the development of content with regard to the pedagogical, social, and technological aspects of an online course; the Online Education Initiative currently offers a 4-week training course for colleges adopting common course management system. The online college can share its methods, leaming, insights with the existing Online Education Initiative and professional development and training opportunities available through the Institutional Effectiveness Partnership Initiative.

Online College Implementation Schedule

In year 1-2 of implementation, the online college is expected to, at a minimum, meet the following milestones: 1. Fully develop an implementation plan, validate a business plan, and develop three program pathways

designed in partnership with employers and industry groups. 2. Hire the start-up core team within the College. 3. Establish the Board of Govemors of the Califomia Community Colleges as the college’s initial

goveming board. The goveming board can designate members with the appropriate skills and experience, including those necessary to guide the formation of a new entity to act on its behalf.

4. Fonnally establish the entity, develop intemal business processes and personnel policies, and establish outcomes goals.

5. Map out the student experience process including, but not limited to: recmiting, onboarding, transcriptions, instmctional experience, billing, entry into an intemship ( i f applicable), and entry into a job ( i f applicable).

6. Develop an accreditation plan. 7. Create a statewide outreach plan, which includes working with immigrant groups and community-based

organizations to reach the target population of underserved working leamers and help design solutions that work for these leamers.

8. Define the duties for instmctional support, program development, and other student experience activities.

9. Partner with an existing national provider of prior leaming assessment to establish business processes that simplify recognition of prior leamings into the student onboarding experience.

In year 2-3 of implementation, the online college is expected to, at a minimum, meet the following milestones: 1. Enroll students into the college’s program pathways. The college wi l l plan to enroll students by the last

quarter of 2019. 2. Incorporate student feedback to improve the college’s instruction, technology, and student support

services. 3. Design and validate at least three more program pathways, including coordinating the creation of new


Prepared by the Department of Finance, in consultation with the CCC C ‘hancellor’s Office January 2018


4. Apply for accreditation from U.S. Department of Education recognized accreditor.

In year 3-4 of implementation, the online college is expected to, at a minimum, meet the following milestones: 1. Enroll students into the program pathways. 2. Incorporate student feedback into improvement of instruction, technology, and support services. 3. Design and validate at least five more program pathways, including coordinating the creation of new


In year 4-5 of implementation, the online college is expected to, at a minimum, meet the following milestones: 1. Enroll students into the program pathways. 2. Incorporate student feedback into improvement of instruction, curriculum, technology, and support

services. 3. Design and validate at least five more program pathways, including coordinating the creation of new


In year 6-7 of implementation, the online college is expected to, at a minimum, meet the following milestones: 1. Enroll students into the program pathways. 2. Incorporate student feedback into improvement of instruction, curriculum, technology, and support

services. 3. Prepare for scaling.

‘ “BUOOl: S E X B Y A G E B Y E U U C A T I O N A L A T T A I N M E N T FOR T H E POPt iLATlON 18 Y E A R S AND O V E R – Universe: Population 18 years and over, 2011-2015 American Community Survey.” U.S. Census Bureau. https:/A\ – “Report on Options for an Online, Statewide Community College”, The National Center for Higher E.ducation Management Systems. November 2017, http://doingwhatmatters.cccco.edU/portals/6/docs/FLOW/FLOW%200ptions%20Report%20112917.3.pdf. ‘ “2011-15 American Community Survey Five-Year Public Use Microdata Sample”, U.S. Census Bureau,

“2011-15 American Community Survey Five-Year Public Use Microdata Sample”. U.S. Census Bureau. https://wv\ ^ The University of Phoenix and Southern New Hampshire University charge S410 per unit ( and S320 per unit (, respectively, while the Califomia Community Colleges—for those earning enough to pay—charge $46 per unit. ‘ Fall 2015 data from Integrated Postseeondary Education Data System, National Center for Education Statistics, ‘ “2005-2016 American Community Survey Public Use Microdata Sample”. U.S. Census Bureau, https://w * Hilary Wething. “Job Growth in the Great Recession Has Not Been Equal Between Men and Women,” Economic Policy Institute. August 26, 2014, ‘ Anthony P. Carnevale. Jeff Strohl, and Neil Ridley. “Good Jobs That Pay Without A BA: A State-By-State Analysis,” Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce, 2017,

“The Digital Edge: Middle-Skill Workers and Careers.” Buming Glass Technologies. September 2017. content/uploads/Digital_Edge_report_2017_final.pdf. ” “2005-2016 American Community Survey Public ILsc Microdata Sample”. U.S. Census Bureau,

“Credit Course Retention/Success Rate Summary Report”, California Community Colleges Chancellor’s Office MIS Data Mart, ” “Internet/Broadband Fact Sheet”. Pew Charitable Trusts. January 12. 2017. ”’ “Department of Finance Bill Analysis – A B 1665”, Califomia Department of Finance. September 5, 2017,

“Internet/Broadband Fact Sheet”. Pew Charitable Trusts, January 12. 2017, http://www.pew’ ” “Digital Diaspora: How Immigrants Are Capitalizing on Today’s Technology”, Welcoming Center for New Pennsylvanians. November 2012, ”’ Califomia Virtual Campus as of December 2017,

Presentation from Califomia Community Colleges Board of Govemors meeting, November 13, 2017, ” Michael Feldstein. Phil Hill. Kevin Kelly, “The G E L Improving quality, student success and lowering costs through statewide collaboration,” MindWires, L L C . October !9. 2017. http://extranet.cccco.edU/Portals/l/ExecutiveOffice/Board/2017_agendas/November/4.l-Attachment-OEl-Update.pdf

“Courses in the Course Exchange”. Califomia Community Colleges Online Education Initiative, January 9. 2018.

Prepared hy the Departmetit of Fitiance. in consttltation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office January 2018


-‘ Elizabeth Durant. Alison Tracln . “Digital Diploma debuts at MI T.” MI T News. October 17. 2017. dcbuts-secure-digital-diploma-using-bitcoin-blockchain-technology-1017.

Prepared by the Department of Finance, in con.snltation with the CCC Chancellor’s Office II JamiarvlOIS

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