5 Pages Essay

Table of Contents

5 Pages Essay

 1.  Using the elements of short stories, compare two coming of age stories that we read (and I assigned).  How is the process different in the two stories?  What is similar, or universal, in the telling of these coming of age stories?

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2.  Using the lens of New Historicism, discuss how the context and influence of the time period in which the story was written have shaped one of the stories we read.

3.  Make an argument identifying a theme in a single short story. 

5 Pages Essay

“Girl” by Jamaica Kincaid p. 122 “The Man to Send Rainclouds” by Leslie Marmon Silko p. 242 “The Things They Carried” by Tim O’Brien p. 484 “Barn Burning” by William Faulkner p. 1267 “Dear Mountain Room Parents” by Maria Semple p. 887 “Greasy Lake” by T. Coraghessan Boyle p. 103 Helping links: The things they carried: https://www.shmoop.com/things-they-carried/summary.html https://www.gradesaver.com/the-things-they-carried/study-guide/summary https://study.com/academy/lesson/things-they-carried-summary-characters-themes.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8cOvKzERBL0 Girl: https://www.enotes.com/topics/girl-kincaid https://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/girl/summary/ http://panmore.com/analysis-jamaica-kincaid-girl Barn burning: https://www.sparknotes.com/short-stories/barn-burning/summary/ https://owlcation.com/humanities/Summary-and-Analysis-of-Barn-Burning-by-William-Faulkner Greasy Lake: https://www.litcharts.com/lit/greasy-lake/summary-and-analysis https://www.gradesaver.com/greasy-lake/study-guide/summary

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An Introduction to Literature





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Literature for Composition An Introduction to Literature

Sylvan Barnet Tufts University

William Burto University of Massachusetts at Lowell

William E. Cain Wellesley College

Cheryl L. Nixon University of Massachusetts at Boston

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Names: Barnet, Sylvan, editor. | Burto, William, editor. | Cain, William E., date-editor. | Pearson, Cheryl L. Nixon, editor. Title: Literature for composition : an introduction to literature / [edited by] Sylvan Barnet, William Burto, William E. Cain, Cheryl L. Nixon Pearson. Description: Eleventh edition. | Boston : Pearson, 2016. | Previous editions had other title information: essays, stories, poems, and plays. | Includes bibliographical references and index. Identifiers: LCCN 2015048640| ISBN 9780134099149 (student edition) | ISBN 0134099141 (student edition) | ISBN 9780134101774 (exam copy) | ISBN 0134101774 (exam copy) Subjects: LCSH: College readers. | English language—Rhetoric—Problems, exercises, etc. | Criticism—Authorship—Problems, exercises, etc. | Academic writing—Problems, exercises, etc. Classification: LCC PE1417 .L633 2016 | DDC 808/.0427—dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015048640

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Contents by Genre xxiii Preface xxvii


Thinking Critically about Literature

C H A P T E R 1   How to Write an Effective Essay about Literature: A Crash Course 1

The Basic Strategy 1 Reading Closely: Approaching a First Draft 2

✔ Checklist: Generating Ideas for a Draft 5 Writing and Revising: Achieving a Readable Draft 6

✔ Checklist: Writing and Revising a Draft 9 Revising: Working with Peer Review 9 Preparing the Final Draft 10

C H A P T E R 2   How to Engage in Critical Thinking about Literature: A Crash Course 11

The Basic Strategy 11 What Is Critical Thinking? 12 How Do We Engage in Critical Thinking? 13 Close Reading 14

✔ Checklist: Close Reading 15 Analysis: Inquiry, Interpretation, Argument 15

Inquiry 16 ✔ Checklist: Inquiry and Question-Asking 17 Interpretation 18 ✔ Checklist: Interpretation 19 Argument 19 ✔ Checklist: Argument 20

Comparison and Synthesis 21 ✔ Checklist: Comparison and Synthesis 22

Revision and Self-Awareness 22 Standing Back: Kinds of Writing 23 Nonanalytical versus Analytical Writing 23


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C H A P T E R 3   The Writer as Reader 25 Reading and Responding 25

KATE CHOPIN • Ripe Figs 25 Reading as Re-creation 26 Reading for Understanding: Collecting Evidence and Making Reasonable

Inferences 27 Reading with Pen in Hand: Close Reading and Annotation 28 Reading for Response: Recording First Reactions 29 Reading for Inquiry: Ask Questions and Brainstorm Ideas 30 Reading in Context: Identifying Your Audience and Purpose 31

From Reading to Writing: Developing an Analytical Essay with an Argumentative Thesis 32

Student Analytical Essay: “Images of Ripening in Kate Chopin’s ‘Ripe Figs’” 32 The Analytical Essay: Argument and Structure Analyzed 34 The Writing Process: From First Responses to Final Essay 35 Other Possibilities for Writing 37

From Reading to Writing: Moving from Brainstorming to Analytical Essay 37 BRUCE HOLLAND ROGERS • Three Soldiers 37 The Writing Process: From Response Writing to Final Essay 38 Student Analytical Essay: “Thinking about Three Soldiers Thinking” 39 The Analytical Essay: The Development of Ideas Analyzed 42

From Reading to Writing: Moving from Preliminary Outline to Analytical Essay 43 RAY BRADBURY • August 2026: There Will Come Soft Rains 43 The Writing Process: From Outlining to Final Essay 47 Student Analytical Essay: “The Lesson of ‘August 2026’” 48

Your Turn: Additional Stories for Analysis 51 MICHELE SERROS • Senior Picture Day 51 HARUKI MURAKAMI • On Seeing the 100% Perfect Girl One Beautiful

April Morning 56 JOHN UPDIKE • A & P 59

C H A P T E R 4   The Reader as Writer 64 Developing Ideas through Close Reading and Inquiry 64

Getting Ideas 64 Annotating a Text 64 KATE CHOPIN • The Story of an Hour 65 Brainstorming Ideas 66 Focused Freewriting 67 Listing Ideas, Details, and Quotations 67 Asking Questions 68 Keeping a Journal 69

Developing a Thesis through Critical Thinking 70 Arguing with Yourself 70 Arguing a Thesis 71 ✔ Checklist: The Thesis Sentence 72

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Contents    vii

From Reading to Writing to Revising: Drafting an Argument in an Analytical Essay 72 Student Analytical Essay: “Ironies in an Hour” (Preliminary Draft) 73 Revising an Argument 75 Outlining an Argument 75 Soliciting Peer Review, Thinking about Counterarguments 76

From Reading to Writing to Revising: Finalizing an Analytical Essay 77 Student Analytical Essay: “Ironies of Life in Kate Chopin’s ‘The Story of an

Hour’” (Final Draft) 77 The Analytical Essay: The Final Draft Analyzed 80

From Reading to Writing to Revising: Drafting an Analytical Essay 80 KATE CHOPIN • Désirée’s Baby 80 Student Analytical Essay: “Race and Identity in ‘Désirée’s Baby’” 84

From Reading to Writing to Revising: Drafting a Comparison Essay 87 KATE CHOPIN • The Storm 87 Student Comparison Essay: “Two New Women” 91 The Comparison Essay: Organization Analyzed 94

Your Turn: Additional Stories for Analysis 95 DAGOBERTO GILB • Love in L.A. 95 ELIZABETH TALLENT • No One’s a Mystery 97 JUNOT DíAZ • How to Date a Brown Girl (Black Girl, White Girl, or Halfie) 100 T. CORAGHESSAN BOYLE • Greasy Lake 103 MARY HOOD • How Far She Went 110

C H A P T E R 5   The Pleasures of Reading, Writing, and Thinking about Literature 116

The Pleasures of Literature 116 ALLEN WOODMAN • Wallet 117

The Pleasures of Analyzing the Texts That Surround Us 118 The Pleasures of Authoring Texts 119 The Pleasures of Interacting with Texts 120 Interacting with Fiction: Literature as Connection 121

JAMAICA KINCAID • Girl 122 Personal Response Essay 123

Student Personal Response Essay: “The Narrator in Jamaica Kincaid’s ‘Girl’: Questioning the Power of Voice” 123

Interacting with Graphic Fiction: Literature as (Making and Breaking) Rules 127 LYNDA BARRY • Before You Write 128

Interacting with Poetry: Literature as Language 129 JULIA BIRD  • 14: a txt msg poM 130 BILLY COLLINS  • Twitter Poem 131

Interacting with Drama: Literature as Performance 131 OSCAR WILDE  • Excerpt from The Importance of Being Earnest 132

Interacting with Essays: Literature as Discovery 134 ANNA LISA RAYA  • It’s Hard Enough Being Me 135

Your Turn: Additional Poems, Stories, and Essay for Pleasurable Analysis 138

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Poems JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA • Green Chile 138 ALBERTO RIOS • Nani 140 WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS • This Is Just to Say 141 HELEN CHASIN • The Word Plum 142 GARY SOTO  • Oranges 143 SARAH N. CLEGHORN • The Golf Links 145 STEVIE SMITH • Not Waving but Drowning 145

Stories AMBROSE BIERCE • An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge 146 MARGARET ATWOOD • Happy Endings 153

Essay GEORGE SAUNDERS • Commencement Speech on Kindness 156


Writing Arguments about Literature

C H A P T E R 6   Close Reading: Paraphrase, Summary, and Explication 165

What Is Literature? 165 Literature and Form 165 Form and Meaning 167 ROBERT FROST • The Span of Life 167

Close Reading: Reading in Slow Motion 169 Exploring a Poem and Its Meaning 170

LANGSTON HUGHES • Harlem 170 Paraphrase 171 Summary 173 Explication 175

Working toward an Explication 176 Student Explication Essay: “Langston Hughes’s ‘Harlem’” 178

Explication as Argument 180 ✔ Checklist: Drafting an Explication 182 Student Argumentative Explication Essay: “Giving Stamps Personality in

‘Stamp Collecting’” 182 CATHY SONG • Stamp Collecting 183

Your Turn: Additional Poems for Explication 187 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 73 188 JOHN DONNE • Holy Sonnet XIV 189 EMILY BRONTË • Spellbound 189 LI-YOUNG LEE • I Ask My Mother to Sing 190 RANDALL JARRELL • The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 191

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Contents    ix

C H A P T E R 7   Analysis: Inquiry, Interpretation, and Argument 192

Analysis 192 Understanding Analysis as a Process of Inquiry, Interpretation, and Argument 193 Analyzing a Story from the Hebrew Bible: The Judgment of Solomon 194

The Judgment of Solomon 194 Developing an Analysis of the Story 195 Opening Up Additional Ways to Analyze the Story 196

Analyzing a Story from the New Testament: The Parable of the Prodigal Son 197 The Parable of the Prodigal Son 198 Asking Questions that Trigger an Analysis of the Story 198

From Inquiry to Interpretation to Argument: Developing an Analytical Paper 199 ERNEST HEMINGWAY • Cat in the Rain 200 Close Reading 202 Inquiry Questions 203 Interpretation Brainstorming 204 The Argument-Centered Paper 205 Student Argument Essay: “Hemingway’s American Wife” 206 From Inquiry to an Analytical Paper: A Second Example 208 Student Analytical Essay: “Hemingway’s Unhappy Lovers” 210

Breaking Down the Analytical Essay 213 Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis 213 Developing an Argument 215

Introductory Paragraphs 215 Middle Paragraphs 217 Concluding Paragraphs 218 Coherence in Paragraphs: Using Transitions 219 ✔ Checklist: Revising Paragraphs 219

From Inquiry to Interpretation to Argument: Organizing Ideas in an Analytical Paper 220

JAMES JOYCE • Araby 220 Finding and Organizing an Interpretation 224 Student Analytical Essay: “Everyday and Imagined Settings in ‘Araby’” 226

From Inquiry to Interpretation to Argument: Maintaining an Interpretation in an Analytical Paper 231

APHRA BEHN • Song: Love Armed 231 Maintaining Interpretive Interest Notes 231 Student Analytical Essay: “The Double Nature of Love” 233 ✔ Checklist: Editing a Draft 235

Your Turn: Additional Short Stories and Poems for Analysis 236 Stories

EDGAR ALLAN POE • The Cask of Amontillado 236 LESLIE MARMON SILKO • The Man to Send Rain Clouds 242

Poems BILLY COLLINS • Introduction to Poetry 245 ROBERT FROST • The Road Not Taken 246

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JOHN KEATS • Ode on a Grecian Urn 247 MARTÍN ESPADA • Bully 249

C H A P T E R 8   Pushing Analysis Further: Reinterpreting and Revising 251

Interpretation and Meaning 251 Is the Author’s Intention a Guide to Meaning? 252 What Characterizes a Sound Interpretation? 252 Interpreting Pat Mora’s “Immigrants” 253 PAT MORA • Immigrants 254 ✔ Checklist: Developing an Interpretation 255

Strategy #1: Pushing Analysis by Rethinking First Responses 255 JEFFREY WHITMORE • Bedtime Story 257 DOUGLAS L. HASKINS • Hide and Seek 258 MARK PLANTS • Equal Rites 258

Strategy #2: Pushing Analysis by Exploring Literary Form 259 ✔ Checklist: Using Formal Evidence in an Analytical Essay 260 LANGSTON HUGHES • Mother to Son 261 Student Analytical Essay: “Accepting the Challenge of a Difficult Climb in

Langston Hughes’s ‘Mother to Son’” 264 Strategy # 3: Pushing Analysis by Emphasizing Concepts and Insights 268

ROBERT FROST • Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening 269 Student Analytical Essay: “Stopping by Woods—and Going On” 270 Analyzing the Analytical Essay’s Development of a Conceptual

Interpretation 273 Student Analytical Essay: “‘Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening’ as a

Short Story” 274 Strategy #4: Pushing Analysis through Revision 278

Revising for Ideas versus Mechanics 278 Revising Using Instructor Feedback, Peer Feedback, and Self-Critique 278 Examining a Preliminary Draft with Revision in Mind 279 HA JIN • Saboteur 280 Student Analytical Essay: “Morals in Ha Jin’s ‘Saboteur’” (Preliminary Draft) 287 Developing a Revision Strategy: Thesis, Ideas, Evidence, Organization, and

Correctness 288 ✔ Revision Checklist 289 Student Analytical Essay: “Individual and Social Morals in Ha Jin’s ‘Saboteur’”

(Final Draft) 291 Your Turn: Additional Poems and Story for Interpretation 297 Poems

T. S. ELIOT • The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock 297 THOMAS HARDY • The Man He Killed 301 ANNE BRADSTREET • Before the Birth of One of Her Children 302 CHRISTINA ROSSETTI • After Death 303 FRED CHAPPELL • Narcissus and Echo 304

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Story JOYCE CAROL OATES • Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 305

C H A P T E R 9  Comparison and Synthesis 317 Comparison and Critical Thinking 317 Organizing a Comparison Essay 318 Comparison and Close Reading 320 Comparison and Asking Questions 322 Comparison and Analyzing Evidence 323 Comparison and Arguing with Yourself 323

E. E. CUMMINGS • Buffalo Bill ’s 324 ✔ Checklist: Developing a Comparison 328

Synthesis through Close Reading: Analyzing a Revised Short Story 328 RAYMOND CARVER • Mine 329 RAYMOND CARVER  • Little Things 330

Synthesis through Building a Concept Bridge: Connecting Two Poems 332 THYLIAS MOSS • Tornados 333 KWAME DAWES • Tornado Child 333

Synthesis Using Theme 336 SANDRA CISNEROS • Barbie-Q 337 MARYANNE O’HARA • Diverging Paths and All That 338 JAYNE ANNE PHILLIPS • Sweethearts 339

Synthesis Using Form 341 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 18: Shall I Compare Thee to a

Summer’s Day? 342 HOWARD MOSS • Shall I Compare Thee to a Summer’s Day? 342 Student Comparison Essay: “Condensing Shakespeare: A Comic Re-writing of a

Shakespeare Sonnet” 342 ✔ Checklist: Revising a Comparison 348

Your Turn: Additional Poems and Stories for Comparison and Synthesis 348 Carpe Diem (“Seize The Day”) Poems

ROBERT HERRICK • To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time 348 CHRISTOPHER MARLOWE • The Passionate Shepherd to His Love 349 SIR WALTER RALEIGH • The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd 350 ANDREW MARVELL • To His Coy Mistress 351 JOHN DONNE • The Bait 353

Poems about Blackberries GALWAY KINNELL • Blackberry Eating 354 SYLVIA PLATH  • Blackberrying 355 SEAMUS HEANEY • Blackberry-Picking 356 YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA • Blackberries 357

Poems about America WALT WHITMAN • I Hear America Singing 359 LANGSTON HUGHES • I, Too [Sing America] 359

Stories about Reading and Writing

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JULIO CORTÁZAR • The Continuity of Parks 361 A. M. HOMES • Things You Should Know 362

Stories about Grandmothers LAN SAMANTHA CHANG • Water Names 364 KATHERINE ANNE PORTER • The Jilting of Granny Weatherall 368

C H A P T E R 10  Research: Writing with Sources 374 Creating a Successful Research Plan 374

Enter Research with a Plan of Action 374 What Resources Does Your Institution Offer? 375 What Type of Research Do You Want to Do? 376

Selecting a Research Topic and Generating Research Questions 376 Use Close Reading as Your Starting Point 376 Select Your Topic 377 Skim Resources through Preliminary Research 377 Narrow Your Topic, and Form a Working Thesis 377 Generate Key Concepts as Keywords 380 Create Inquiry Questions 380

Locating Materials through Productive Searches 381 Generate Meaningful Keywords 382 ✔ Checklist: Creating Meaningful Keywords for a Successful Search 382

Using Academic Databases to Locate Materials 382 Search the MLA Database 382 Search Full-Text Academic Databases 383 Perform Advanced Keyword Searches 383 Evaluate the Results List, and Revise Your Search 384 Evaluate the Individual Titles 384

Using the Library Catalog to Locate Materials 385 Locate Books and Additional Resources 386 Use a Catalog Entry to Locate More Sources 386

Using the Internet to Perform Meaningful Research 387 Locate Academic Sites on the Internet 388 Locate Information-Rich Sites on the Internet 389 Avoid Commercial Sites on the Internet 389 Locate Well-known Literary Sites on the Internet 389 Locate Primary Sources on the Internet 389

Evaluating Sources for Academic Quality 390 ✔ Checklist: Evaluating Web Sites for Quality 390

Evaluating Sources for Topic “Fit” 392 ✔ Checklist: Evaluating Sources for Topic “Fit” 393

Taking Notes on Secondary Sources 395 A Guide to Note Taking 395

Drafting the Research Paper 399 Focus on Primary Sources 400

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Integrate Secondary Sources 400 Create a Relationship between Your Writing and the Source 400 Surround the Source with Your Writing 401 Agree with a Source in Order to Develop Your Ideas 401 Apply a Source in Order to Develop Your Ideas 401 Disagree with a Source in Order to Develop Your Ideas 402 Synthesize Critics’ Ideas to Show Scholarly Debate 403

Avoiding Plagiarism 403 Student Research Essay: “Dickinson’s Representation of Changing Seasons and

Changing Emotions” 404


Analyzing Literary Forms and Elements

C H A P T E R 11  Reading and Writing about Essays 415 Types of Essays 415 Elements of Essays 416

The Essayist’s Persona 416 Voice 417 Tone 417 Topic and Thesis 418 BRENT STAPLES • Black Men and Public Space 419 ✔ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Essays 421

Student Writing Portfolio Summary Paper 422 Writing a Summary Paper 422 Annotation: Reading for Information 424 Note Taking: Using Inquiry Notes to Summarize Information 425

Inquiry: Paragraph-by-Paragraph Notes 425 Crafting a Thesis and Creating a Concise Summary 426

Drafting: Crafting a Strong Thesis 426 Drafting: Creating a Concise Summary 428 Student Summary Paragraph: Summary Paragraph on Staples

(Preliminary Draft) 429 Revision: Using a Revision Strategy 430

✔ Revision Checklist 430 Revision: Revising to Integrate Evidence 430 Student Summary Paragraph: “Exploring Racial Fear: A Summary of Brent

Staples’ ‘Black Men and Public Spaces’” (Final Draft) 431 Your Turn: Additional Essays for Analysis 431

LANGSTON HUGHES • Salvation 432 LAURA VANDERKAM • Hookups Starve the Soul 433 STEVEN DOLOFF • The Opposite Sex 435 GRETEL EHRLICH • About Men 437

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C H A P T E R 12  Reading and Writing about Stories 440 Stories True and False 440

GRACE PALEY • Samuel 441 Elements of Fiction 443

Character 443 Plot 444 Foreshadowing 445 Setting and Atmosphere 446 Symbolism 446 Narrative Point of View 448 Style and Point of View 449 Theme 450 WILLIAM FAULKNER • A Rose for Emily 451 ✔ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing about Stories 457

Student Writing Portfolio Analytical Paper 460 Writing an Analytical Paper 460 Annotation: Reading for Form and Content 461 Note Taking: Using Inquiry Notes to Generate Ideas 462

Inquiry: Double- (or Triple-) Entry Notes 462 Inquiry: Listing Notes 463 Inquiry: Journal Writing 464

Drafting: Creating an Argument and Explaining Your Interpretation 465 Student Analytical Essay: “Homer’s Murder in ‘A Rose for Emily’”

(Preliminary Draft) 466 Revision: Using a Revision Strategy 469

✔ Revision Checklist 470 Revision: Revising to Strengthen the Thesis 470 Revision: Revising to Develop Ideas 471 Revision: Revising to Improve Organization 472 Student Analytical Essay: “The Townspeople’s Responsibility for

Homer’s Murder in ‘A Rose for Emily’” (Final Draft) 474 Your Turn: Additional Stories for Analysis 480

KATHERINE MANSFIELD • Miss Brill 481 TIM O’BRIEN • The Things They Carried 484 GABRIEL GARCÍA MÁRQUEZ • A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings:

A Tale for Children 495 An Author in Depth: Flannery O’Connor 500

FLANNERY O’CONNOR • A Good Man Is Hard to Find 500 Remarks from Essays and Letters 511

From “The Fiction Writer and His Country” 511 From “Some Aspects of the Grotesque in Southern Fiction” 512 From “The Nature and Aim of Fiction” 512 From “Writing Short Stories” 513 On Interpreting “A Good Man Is Hard to Find” 513 “A Reasonable Use of the Unreasonable” 514

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C H A P T E R 13   Reading and Writing about Graphic Fiction 517

Letters and Pictures, Words and Images 517 Reading an Image: A Short Story Told in One Panel 520

TONY CARRILLO • F Minus 520 Elements of Graphic Fiction 522

Visual Elements 522 Narrative and Graphic Jumps 523 Graphic Style 523

Reading a Series of Images: A Story Told in Sequential Panels 524 ART SPIEGELMAN • Nature vs. Nurture 525 ✔ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Graphic Fiction 527

Your Turn: Additional Graphic Fiction for Analysis 529 WILL EISNER • Hamlet on a Rooftop 529 R. CRUMB and DAVID ZANE MAIROWITZ • A Hunger Artist 541

C H A P T E R 14  Reading and Writing about Plays 547 Types of Plays 547

Tragedy 547 Comedy 549

Elements of Drama 550 Theme 550 Plot 550 Gestures 552 Setting 552 Characterization and Motivation 553 ✔ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Plays 554

Thinking about a Film Version of a Play 555 Getting Ready to Write about a Filmed Play 556 ✔ Checklist: Writing about a Filmed Play 556

Student Writing Portfolio Comparison Paper 557 Writing a Comparison Paper 557

SUSAN GLASPELL • Trifles 558 SUSAN GLASPELL • A Jury of Her Peers 567

Annotation: Marginal Notes 582 Comparison as a Form of Critical Thinking 584 Inquiry Notes: Comparison Grid 584 Inquiry Notes: Journal Writing 585 Drafting and Revision: Using Comparison to Create Interpretation and Argument 587

Student Analytical Essay: “Trifles, the Play, versus ‘A Jury of Her Peers,’ the Short Story” (Preliminary Draft) 587

Revision: Using a Revision Strategy 593 ✔ Revision Checklist 593

Revision: Revising to Develop Ideas 594

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Revision: Revising to Clarify Style 595 ✔ Writing Style Checklist 595 Student Analytical Essay: “The Dramatic Action of Trifles: Making the

Audience into Detectives” (Final Draft) 597 Your Turn: Additional Plays for Analysis 605 A Modern Comedy 605

DAVID IVES • Sure Thing 606 A Note on Greek Tragedy 614 A Greek Tragedy 616

SOPHOCLES • Antigone 616 An Author in Depth: William Shakespeare 640

WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE 640 A Note on the Elizabethan Theater 641 A Note on Hamlet on the Stage 642 A Note on the Text of Hamlet 646 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 652 ANNE BARTON • The Promulgation of Confusion 756 STANLEY WELLS • On the First Soliloquy 759 ELAINE SHOWALTER • Representing Ophelia 761 BERNICE W. KLIMAN • The BBC Hamlet: A Television Production 762 WILL SARETTA • Branagh’s Film of Hamlet 764

C H A P T E R 15  Reading and Writing about Poems 766 Elements of Poetry 766

The Speaker and the Poet 766 EMILY DICKINSON • I’m Nobody! Who are you? 766 EMILY DICKINSON • Wild Nights—Wild Nights 768 The Language of Poetry: Diction and Tone 769 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 146 769 Figurative Language 770 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 130 772 Imagery and Symbolism 773 EDMUND WALLER • Song 773 WILLIAM BLAKE • The Sick Rose 774 Verbal Irony and Paradox 775 Structure 775

Rhythm and Versification: A Glossary for Reference 776 Meter 777 Patterns of Sound 780 Stanzaic Patterns 781 BILLY COLLINS • Sonnet 782 Blank Verse and Free Verse 783 ✔ Checklist: Getting Ideas for Writing Arguments about Poems 783

Student Writing Portfolio Explication Paper 785 Writing an Explication Paper 785

✔ Checklist: Explication 786 GWENDOLYN BROOKS • kitchenette building 787

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 16 03/02/16 1:44 pm

Contents    xvii

Annotation: Highlighting First Reactions 788 Explication as a Form of Critical Thinking 789 Annotation: Rereading and Adding Inquiry Questions 790 Inquiry: Mapping, Clustering, and Creating Graphic Notes 791 Inquiry: Journal Writing 793 Drafting and Revision: Explaining a Close Reading 794

Student Explication Essay: “Life in a ‘kitchenette building’” (Preliminary Draft) 795

Revision: Using a Revision Strategy 798 ✔ Revision Checklist 798

Revision: Revising to Strengthen the Thesis 799 Revision: Revising to Integrate and Explain Evidence 800

Student Analytical Essay: “The Contest between Dreams and Everyday Life in Brooks’s ‘kitchenette building’” (Final Draft) 802

Your Turn: Additional Poems for Analysis 807 ROBERT BROWNING • My Last Duchess 807 E. E. CUMMINGS • Anyone Lived in a Pretty How Town 809 SYLVIA PLATH • Daddy 811 GWENDOLYN BROOKS • We Real Cool 813 ETHERIDGE KNIGHT • For Malcolm, a Year After 814 ANNE SEXTON • Her Kind 815 JAMES WRIGHT • Lying in a Hammock at William Duffy’s Farm in Pine

Island, Minnesota 816 An Author in Depth: Robert Frost 817 Robert Frost on Poetry 818

ROBERT FROST • The Figure a Poem Makes 818 ROBERT FROST • The Pasture 819 ROBERT FROST • Mowing 820 ROBERT FROST • The Wood-Pile 820 ROBERT FROST • The Oven Bird 821 ROBERT FROST • The Need of Being Versed in Country Things 822 ROBERT FROST • The Most of It 823 ROBERT FROST • Design 824


Enjoying Literary Themes: A Thematic Anthology

C H A P T E R 16  The World around Us 825 Essays

HENRY DAVID THOREAU • Where I Lived, and What I Lived For 825 HENRY DAVID THOREAU • The Ponds 825 BILL MCKIBBEN • Now or Never 828

Stories AESOP • The Ant and the Grasshopper 832 AESOP • The North Wind and the Sun 833

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xviii    Contents

JACK LONDON • To Build a Fire 833 SARAH ORNE JEWETT • A White Heron 844 PATRICIA GRACE • Butterflies 850

Poems MATTHEW ARNOLD • In Harmony with Nature 852 THOMAS HARDY • Transformations 853 GERARD MANLEY HOPKINS • God’s Grandeur 854 WALT WHITMAN • A Noiseless Patient Spider 855 EMILY DICKINSON • A Narrow Fellow in the Grass 856 EMILY DICKINSON • There’s a certain Slant of light 857 EMILY DICKINSON • The name—of it—is ‘Autumn’ 857 JOY HARJO • Vision 858 MARY OLIVER • The Black Walnut Tree 859 KAY RYAN • Turtle 860

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 861

C H A P T E R 17  Technology and Human Identity 862 Essay

NICHOLAS CARR • Is Google Making Us Stupid? 862 Stories

KURT VONNEGUT, JR. • Harrison Bergeron 870 AMY STERLING CASIL • Perfect Stranger 874 MARK TWAIN • A Telephonic Conversation 884 MARIA SEMPLE • Dear Mountain Room Parents 887 ROBIN HEMLEY • Reply All 890 JOHN CHEEVER • The Enormous Radio 895 RAY BRADBURY • The Veldt 902 STEPHEN KING • Word Processor of the Gods 912 KIT REED • The New You 924

Poems WALT WHITMAN • To a Locomotive in Winter 931 EMILY DICKINSON • I Like to See it Lap the Miles 932 DANIEL NYIKOS • Potato Soup 933 A. E. STALLINGS • Sestina: Like 934 MARCUS WICKER • Ode to Browsing the Web 935

Play LUIS VALDEZ • Los Vendidos 937

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 946

C H A P T E R 18  Love and Hate, Men and Women 948 Essay

JUDITH ORTIZ COFER • I Fell in Love, or My Hormones Awakened 948 Stories

ZORA NEALE HURSTON • Sweat 953 JHUMPA LAHIRI • This Blessed House 961

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 18 03/02/16 1:44 pm

Contents    xix

Poems ANONYMOUS • Western Wind 972 WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE • Sonnet 116 972 JOHN DONNE • A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning 973 EDNA ST. VINCENT MILLAY • Love Is Not All: It Is Not Meat

nor Drink 975 ROBERT BROWNING • Porphyria’s Lover 976 NIKKI GIOVANNI • Love in Place 978 ANONYMOUS • Higamus, Hogamus 979 DOROTHY PARKER • General Review of the Sex Situation 979 FRANK O’HARA • Homosexuality 980 MARGE PIERCY • Barbie Doll 981

Play TERRENCE MCNALLY • Andre’s Mother 982

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 985

C H A P T E R 19  Innocence and Experience 986 Essay

GEORGE ORWELL • Shooting an Elephant 986 Stories

CHARLOTTE PERKINS GILMAN • The Yellow Wallpaper 991 JOHN STEINBECK • The Chrysanthemums 1002 ALICE WALKER • Everyday Use 1010

Poems WILLIAM BLAKE • Infant Joy 1016 WILLIAM BLAKE • Infant Sorrow 1017 WILLIAM BLAKE • The Lamb 1018 WILLIAM BLAKE • The Tyger 1018 THOMAS HARDY • The Ruined Maid 1019 E. E. CUMMINGS • in Just- 1020 LOUISE GLÜCK • The School Children 1021 LINDA PASTAN • Ethics 1022 THEODORE ROETHKE • My Papa’s Waltz 1023 SHARON OLDS • Rites of Passage 1024 NATASHA TRETHEWEY • White Lies 1025

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 1026

C H A P T E R 20  All in a Day’s Work 1028 Essay

BARBARA EHRENREICH • Wal-Mart Orientation Program 1028 Stories

JACOB GRIMM AND WILHELM GRIMM • Mother Holle 1031 WILLIAM CARLOS WILLIAMS • The Use of Force 1034 WILL EISNER • The Day I Became a Professional 1037 DANIEL OROZCO • Orientation 1041

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 19 03/02/16 1:44 pm

xx    Contents

Poems WILLIAM WORDSWORTH • The Solitary Reaper 1045 CARL SANDBURG • Chicago 1046 GARY SNYDER • Hay for the Horses 1048 ROBERT HAYDEN • Those Winter Sundays 1049 SEAMUS HEANEY • Digging 1049 JULIA ALVAREZ • Woman’s Work 1050 MARGE PIERCY • To be of use 1051 JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA • So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from

Americans 1052 Plays

JANE MARTIN • Rodeo 1054 ARTHUR MILLER • Death of a Salesman 1057

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 1123

C H A P T E R 21  American Dreams and Nightmares 1125 Essays

CHIEF SEATTLE • My People 1125 ELIZABETH CADY STANTON • Declaration of Sentiments and

Resolutions 1128 ABRAHAM LINCOLN • Address at the Dedication of the Gettysburg

National Cemetery 1132 STUDS TERKEL • Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Dream 1133 ANDREW LAM • Who Will Light Incense When Mother’s Gone? 1135

Stories SHERMAN ALEXIE • The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven 1137 RALPH ELLISON • Battle Royal 1142 TONI CADE BAMBARA • The Lesson 1152 AMY TAN • Two Kinds 1158

Poems ROBERT HAYDEN • Frederick Douglass 1166 LORNA DEE CERVANTES • Refugee Ship 1167 EDWIN ARLINGTON ROBINSON • Richard Cory 1168 W. H. AUDEN • The Unknown Citizen 1169 EMMA LAZARUS • The New Colossus 1170 THOMAS BAILEY ALDRICH • The Unguarded Gates 1171 JOSEPH BRUCHAC III • Ellis Island 1172 AURORA LEVINS MORALES • Child of the Americas 1174 GLORIA ANZALDÚA • To Live in the Borderlands Means You 1175 MITSUYE YAMADA • To the Lady 1177 nila northSUN • Moving Camp Too Far 1179 YUSEF KOMUNYAKAA • Facing It 1180 BILLY COLLINS • The Names 1182

Play LORRAINE HANSBERRY • A Raisin in the Sun 1185

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 1240

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 20 03/02/16 1:44 pm

Contents    xxi

C H A P T E R 22  Law and Disorder 1241 Essay

MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. • Letter from Birmingham Jail 1242 Stories

ELIZABETH BISHOP • The Hanging of the Mouse 1254 URSULA K. LE GUIN • The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas 1257 SHIRLEY JACKSON • The Lottery 1261 WILLIAM FAULKNER • Barn Burning 1267 TOBIAS WOLFF • Powder 1279

Poems ANONYMOUS • Birmingham Jail 1282 A. E. HOUSMAN • The Carpenter’s Son 1284 A. E. HOUSMAN • Oh who is that young sinner 1285 DOROTHY PARKER • Résumé 1286 CLAUDE MCKAY • If We Must Die 1287 JIMMY SANTIAGO BACA • Cloudy Day 1287 CAROLYN FORCHÉ • The Colonel 1289 HAKI MADHUBUTI • The B Network 1290 JILL MCDONOUGH • Three a.m. 1291

Play BILLY GODA • No Crime 1292

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 1296

C H A P T E R 23  Journeys 1297 Essay

JOAN DIDION • On Going Home 1297 Stories

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE • Young Goodman Brown 1299 EUDORA WELTY • A Worn Path 1308 JAMES JOYCE • Eveline 1313 RAYMOND CARVER • Cathedral 1317

Poems JOHN KEATS • On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer 1326 PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY • Ozymandias 1327 ALFRED, LORD TENNYSON • Ulysses 1328 COUNTEE CULLEN • Incident 1330 WILLIAM STAFFORD • Traveling through the Dark 1331 ADRIENNE RICH • Diving into the Wreck 1332 DEREK WALCOTT • A Far Cry from Africa 1335 SHERMAN ALEXIE • On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City 1336 WILLIAM BUTLER YEATS • Sailing to Byzantium 1338 CHRISTINA ROSSETTI • Uphill 1339

Play HENRIK IBSEN • A Doll’s House 1340

Chapter Overview: Looking Backward/Looking Forward 1390

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 21 03/02/16 1:44 pm

xxii    Contents

A P P E N D I X A   Writing about Literature: an Overview of Critical Strategies 1391

The Nature of Critical Writing 1391 Criticism as Argument: Assumptions and Evidence 1391 Some Critical Strategies 1392

Formalist Criticism (New Criticism) 1393 Deconstruction 1394 Reader-Response Criticism 1394 Archetypal Criticism (Myth Criticism) 1395 Historical Criticism 1396 Biographical Criticism 1397 Marxist Criticism 1397 New Historicist Criticism 1398 Psychological or Psychoanalytic Criticism 1398 Gender Criticism (Feminist, and Lesbian and Gay Criticism) 1399

Your Turn: Putting Critical Strategies to Work 1401

A P P E N D I X B  The Basics of Manuscript Form 1403 Basic Manuscript Form 1403 Quotations and Quotation Marks 1404

Quotation Marks or Italics? 1406 A Note on the Possessive 1406

Documentation: Internal Parenthetical Citations and a List of Works Cited (MLA Format) 1406

Internal Parenthetical Citations 1407 Parenthetical Citations and List of Works Cited 1407 Forms of Citation in Works Cited 1409

Citing Internet Sources 1415 ✔ Checklist: Citing Sources on the Web 1415

Credits 1417 Index of Authors, Titles, First Lines 1427 Index of Terms 1435

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 22 03/02/16 1:44 pm


Contents by Genre Essays Anne Barton The Promulgation of

Confusion 756 Nicholas Carr Is Google Making Us

Stupid? 862 Judith Ortiz Cofer I Fell in Love, or My

Hormones Awakened 948 Joan Didion On Going Home 1297 Steven Doloff The Opposite Sex 435 Barbara Ehrenreich Wal-Mart

Orientation Program 1028 Gretel Ehrlich About Men 437 Langston Hughes Salvation 431 Martin Luther King Jr. Letter from

Birmingham Jail 1241 Bernice W. Kliman The BBC Hamlet:

A Television Production 762 Andrew Lam Who Will Light Incense

When Mother’s Gone? 1135 Abraham Lincoln Address at the

Dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery 1132

Bill McKibben Now or Never 828

George Orwell Shooting an Elephant 986

Anna Lisa Raya It’s Hard Enough Being Me 135

George Saunders Commencement Speech on Kindness 156

Will Saretta Branagh’s Film of Hamlet 764

Chief Seattle My People 1125 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Declaration of

Sentiments and Resolutions 1128 Brent Staples Black Men and Public

Space 419 Elaine Showalter Representing

Ophelia 761 Studs Terkel Arnold Schwarzenegger’s

Dream 1133 Henry David Thoreau From

Walden 825 Laura Vanderkam Hookups Starve the

Soul 433 Stanley Wells On the First Soliloquy 759

Short Stories Aesop The Ant and the Grasshopper 832

The North Wind and the Sun  833 Sherman Alexie The Lone Ranger and

Tonto Fistfight in Heaven 1137 Anonymous The Judgment of

Solomon 194 The Parable of the Prodigal Son 198

Margaret Atwood Happy Endings 152 Toni Cade Bambara The Lesson 1152 Ambrose Bierce An Occurrence at Owl

Creek Bridge 146 Elizabeth Bishop The Hanging of the

Mouse 1254 T. Coraghessan Boyle Greasy Lake 103 Ray Bradbury August 2026: There Will

Come Soft Rains 43 The Veldt 902

Raymond Carver Cathedral 1317 Mine 329 Little Things 330

Lan Samantha Chang Water Names 364 John Cheever The Enormous Radio 894 Kate Chopin Ripe Figs 25

The Story of an Hour 65 Désirée’s Baby 80 The Storm 87

Sandra Cisneros Barbie-Q 336 Julio Cortázar The Continuity of

Parks 360 Junot Diaz How to Date a Brown Girl,

Black Girl, White Girl, or Halfie 100 Will Eisner The Day I Became a

Professional 1037 Ralph Ellison Battle Royal 1142

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 23 03/02/16 1:44 pm

xxiv    Contents by Genre

William Faulkner A Rose for Emily 451 Barn Burning 1267

Amy Sterling Casil Perfect Stranger 874 Dagoberto Gilb Love in L.A. 95 Charlotte Perkins Gilman The Yellow

Wallpaper 991 Susan Glaspell A Jury of Her Peers 567 Patricia Grace Butterflies 850 Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm

Grimm Mother Holle 1031 Ursula K. Le Guin The Ones Who Walk

Away from Omelas 1256 Douglas L. Haskins Hide and Seek 258 Nathaniel Hawthorne Young Goodman

Brown 1299 Ernest Hemingway Cat in the Rain 199 Robin Hemley Reply All 890 A.M. Homes Things You Should

Know 362 Mary Hood How Far She Went 110 Zora Neale Hurston Sweat 952 Shirley Jackson The Lottery 1261 Sarah Orne Jewett A White Heron 843 Ha Jin Saboteur 280 James Joyce Araby 220

Eveline 1313 Jamaica Kincaid Girl 121 Stephen King Word Processor of the

Gods 911 Jhumpa Lahiri This Blessed House 960 Jack London To Build a Fire 833 Katherine Mansfield Miss Brill 480 Gabriel García Márquez A Very

Old Man with Enormous Wings: A Tale for Children 495

Haruki Murakami On Seeing the 100% Perfect Girl One Beautiful April Morning 55

Joyce Carol Oates Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been? 305

Tim O’Brien The Things They Carried 484

Flannery O’Connor A Good Man Is Hard to Find 500

Maryanne O’Hara Diverging Paths and All That 338

Daniel Orozco Orientation 1041 Grace Paley Samuel 440 Dorothy Parker A Telephone Call Edgar Allan Poe The Cask of

Amontillado 236 Mark Plants Equal Rites 258 Jayne Anne Phillips Sweethearts 338 Katherine Anne Porter The Jilting of

Granny Weatherall 367 Kit Reed The New You 924 Bruce Holland Rogers Three Soldiers 37 Maria Semple Dear Mountain Room

Parents 887 Michele Serros Senior Picture Day 51 Leslie Marmon Silko The Man to Send

Rain Clouds 241 John Steinbeck The

Chrysanthemums 1002 Elizabeth Tallent No One’s a Mystery 97 Amy Tan Two Kinds 1158 Mark Twain A Telephonic

Conversation 884 John Updike A & P 58 Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. Harrison

Bergeron 869 Alice Walker Everyday Use 1009 Eudora Welty A Worn Path 1308 Jeffrey Whitmore Bedtime Story 257 William Carlos Williams The Use of

Force 1033 Tobias Wolff Powder 1279 Allen Woodman Wallet 117

Drama Susan Glaspell Trifles 558 Billy Goda No Crime 1292 Lorraine Hansberry A Raisin in the

Sun 1184 Henrik Ibsen A Doll’s House 1340 David Ives Sure Thing 605 Jane Martin Rodeo 1054 Terrence McNally Andre’s Mother 982

Arthur Miller Death of a Salesman 1056 William Shakespeare The Tragedy of

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 652 Sophocles Antigone 616 Luis Valdez Los Vendidos 937 Oscar Wilde Excerpt from The Importance

of Being Ernest 132

A01_BARN9149_11_SE_FM.indd 24 03/02/16 1:44 pm

Contents by Genre    xxv

Thomas Bailey Aldrich The Unguarded Gates 1171

Sherman Alexie On the Amtrak from Boston to New York City 1336

Julia Alvarez Woman’s Work 1050 Anonymous Higamus, Hogamus 979

Western Wind 972 Birmingham Jail 1282

Gloria Anzaldúa To Live in the Borderlands Means You 1175

W. H. Auden The Unknown Citizen 1169

Matthew Arnold In Harmony with Nature 851

Aphra Behn Song: Love Armed 231 Julia Bird 14: a txt msg pom 130 William Blake The Sick Rose 774

Infant Joy 1016 Infant Sorrow 1017 The Lamb 1018 The Tyger 1018

Jimmy Santiago Baca Green Chili 138 So Mexicans Are Taking Jobs from

Americans 1052 Cloudy Day 1287

Anne Bradstreet Before the Birth of One of Her Children 302

Emily Brontë Spellbound 189 Gwendolyn Brooks kitchenette

building 787 We Real Cool 813

Robert Browning My Last Duchess 807

Porphyria’s Lover 976 Joseph Bruchac III Ellis Island 1172 Lorna Dee Cervantes Refugee

Ship 1167 Fred Chapelle Narcissus and

Echo 304 Helen Chasin The Word Plum 142 Sarah N. Cleghorn The Golf Links 144 Billy Collins Introduction to Poetry 245

Twitter Poem 131 Sonnet 782 The Names 1181

Countee Cullen Incident 1330 E. E. Cummings Buffalo Bill ’s 324

anyone lived in a pretty how town 809 in Just- 1020

Kwame Dawes Tornado Child 333

Emily Dickinson I’m Nobody! Who are you? 766

Wild Nights—Wild Nights 768 A Narrow Fellow in the Grass 856 I Like to see it lap the Miles 932 There’s a certain Slant of light 857 The name—of it—is “Autumn” 857

John Donne Holy Sonnet XIV 188 The Bait 352 A Valediction: Forbidding

Mourning 973 T. S. Eliot The Love Song of J. Alfred

Prufrock 297 Martin Espada Bully 249 Carolyn Forché The Colonel 1289 Robert Frost The Span of Life 167

The Road Not Taken 246 Stopping by Woods on a Snowy

Evening 269 The Pasture 819 Mowing 820 The Wood-Pile 820 The Oven Bird 821 The Need of Being Versed in Country

Things 822 The Most of It 823 Design 824

Nikki Giovanni Love in Place 978 Louise Glück The School Children 1021 Thomas Hardy The Man He Killed 301

Transformations 853 The Ruined Maid 1019

Joy Harjo Vision 858 Robert Hayden Those Winter

Sundays 1048 Frederick Douglass 1166

Seamus Heaney Blackeberry-Picking 356 Digging 1049

Robert Herrick To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time 348

Gerard Manley Hopkins God’s Grandeur 853

A. E. Housman The Carpenter’s Son 1283

Oh who is that young sinner 1285 Langston Hughes Harlem 170

Mother to Son 261 I, Too [Sing America] 359

Randall Jarrell The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner 191

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