300 Word Response

Table of Contents

Word Response

please answer the following:

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  • First, according to the Eubanks piece, “What If We’re Wrong About What’s Wrong With Argument“(file uploaded)  what is “wrong” with public argument? 
    • Eubanks lists at least three features central to “nonproductive”  argument. Be sure to list the three, and for each, as always, provide  textual support to help clarify what Eubanks means. (e.g. “On page 3  Eubanks writes…”)
  • Second, how does the internet/digital/multimedia format of public arguments contribute to these problems?  
    • Please try to use insight about internet arguments from “This Video Will Make You Angry” Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rE3j_RHkqJc    – as well as Ch. 16 from EAA and your own understanding of and experience with digital media (including social media)! 
    • (Look for chapter 16 in the textbook I uploaded)

with readings

everything’s an argument

John J. Ruszkiewicz

Keith Walters

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Andrea A. Lunsford

Lunsford Ruszkiewicz


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Argument for the real world: visual, current, and compelling Analyze the arguments that surround you every day, from tweets to infographics to student newspaper articles. Then use what you’ve learned to create convincing arguments of your own, both in and out of the classroom. Everything’s an Argument with Readings combines a proven argument text with a thematically organized reader, featuring engaging selections across perspectives and genres. This book includes the essays and assignments you need in order to do your coursework.

Word Response

with readings

everything’s an argument

John J. Ruszkiewicz

Keith Walters

Andrea A. Lunsford

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with readings

Did your instructor assign LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings? macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargument7e

Everything’s an Argument with Readings is enhanced by the video, audio, and practice activities in LaunchPad. If your book did not come packaged with an access code, you can purchase access to LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings at macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargument7e.

Everything’s an Argument with Readings is available in a variety of e-book formats. For details, visit macmillanhighered.com /everythingsanargumentwithreadings/catalog.


Everything’s an Argument with Readings includes sample student essays for every type of argument, giving you a guide for your own writing. Also, be sure to check out the sample citation pages for a breakdown on how to format your work in either MLA or APA style.

Word Response

Rhetorical Analysis

Rachel Kolb, “Understanding Brooks’s Binaries” 109

Arguments of Fact

Taylor Pearson, “Why You Should Fear Your Toaster More Than Nuclear Power” 174

Arguments of Definition

Natasha Rodriguez, “Who Are You Calling Underprivileged?” 206

Evaluation Arguments

Sean Kamperman, “The Wikipedia Game: Boring, Pointless, or Neither?” 232

Causal Arguments

Raven Jiang, “Dota 2: The Face of Professional Gaming” 264

Proposal Arguments

Manasi Deshpande, “A Call to Improve Campus Accessibility” 295

Academic Arguments

Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner, “Where the Wild Things Should Be: Healing Nature Deficit Disorder through the Schoolyard” 396

Sample Citation Pages

Sample First Page for an Essay in MLA Style 485

Sample List of Works Cited for an Essay in MLA Style 486

Sample Title Page for an Essay in APA Style 500

Sample First Text Page for an Essay in APA Style 501

Sample References List for an Essay in APA Style 502

Where Students Learn

Get the most out of your book with LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargument7e

LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings provides engaging content and new ways to get the most out of your course. Use the interactive e-book, view a tutorial, watch a video, complete assignments, and practice your writing and argument skills.

• Interactive exercises and tutorials for reading, writing, and research

• LearningCurve, adaptive, game-like practice that helps you focus on the topics where you need the most help, such as fallacies, claims, evidence, and other key elements of argument

• Reading comprehension quizzes

Do you sometimes struggle with grammar? The LearningCurve grammar activities included in LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings help you learn at your own pace because they are adaptive: If you have trouble with a concept, the questions get easier, and as you master the material, the questions become more challenging.

Try this in LaunchPad

Take full advantage of the LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings. If your book did not come packaged with an access code, you can purchase access at macmillanhighered.com /everythingsanargument7e.http://macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargument7ehttp://macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargument7e

A note about the cover Is everything really an argument? Seeing the images on the cover of this book might make you wonder. The “Black Lives Matter” protest, for example, instantly calls to mind the very public unrest across the United States and around the world following a series of controversial police actions. But what does an image of a red pepper with a bar code say about the origin and value of food? Does a student using a tablet argue for or against the ways that technology is shaping how we communicate with one another? The honeybee might remind you of organic farming — or of the fact that bees have been dying off in droves while scientists speculate about the causes. And as for the gorgeous view on the smartphone, what’s your best call? A comment on the power of mobile devices? Criticism of how beauty is now commonly treated as something to post online rather than simply to enjoy? What’s your take?

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everything’s an argument/with readings

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Top left: © Lynn Johnson/Aurora/Getty Images; top right: © Steven Barrymore; bottom left: © Bill Coster/age fotostock; bottom right: Frederick M. Brown/Getty Images; center row, left to right: Red DaxLuma Galler y/Shutterstock; Pacific Press/Getty Images; AP Photo; A. S. Alexander Collection of Ernest Hemingway. Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library; © Mel Longhurst/Photoshot; © imageBROKER/age fotostock

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Bedford /St. Martin’S a Macmillan education imprint

Boston  •  New York

Seventh Edition

Andrea A. Lunsford Stanford University

John J. Ruszkiewicz University of Texas at Austin

Keith Walters Portland State University

with readings

Arguments Argument

argument argumentseveryThing’S An

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For Bedford/St. Martin’s

Vice President, Editorial, Macmillan Higher Education Humanities: Edwin Hill Editorial Director, English and Music: Karen S. Henry Publisher for Composition, Business and Technical Writing, and Developmental

Writing: Leasa Burton Executive Editor: John E. Sullivan III Developmental Editors: Rachel Goldberg and Sherry Mooney Editorial Assistant: Jennifer Prince Senior Production Editor: Rosemary R. Jaffe Senior Production Supervisor: Jennifer Wetzel Marketing Manager: Joy Fisher Williams Copy Editor: Steven Patterson Indexer: Leoni Z. McVey Photo Researcher: Sheri Blaney Director of Rights and Permissions: Hilary Newman Senior Art Director: Anna Palchik Text Design: Anna Palchik and Graphic World, Inc. Cover Design: John Callahan Cover Images (top to bottom): © Hero/age fotostock; c. byatt-norman/

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Composition: Graphic World, Inc. Printing and Binding: RR Donnelley and Sons

Copyright © 2016, 2013, 2010, 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin’s.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, except as may be expressly permitted by the applicable copyright statutes or in writing by the Publisher.

Manufactured in the United States of America.

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For information, write: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 75 Arlington Street, Boston, MA 02116 (617-399-4000)

ISBN 978-1-4576-9864-4 (paperback) ISBN 978-1-319-01632-6 (hardcover)


Text acknowledgments and copyrights appear at the back of the book on pages 800–803, which constitute an extension of the copyright page. Art acknowledgments and copyrights appear on the same page as the art selections they cover. It is a violation of the law to reproduce these selections by any means whatsoever without the written permission of the copyright holder.

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We’ve long described Everything’s an Argument with Readings as a labor of love, in part because working on the book keeps us connected to the neighborhoods our students inhabit. In teaching them how to persuade powerfully and ethically, we broaden our own horizons and learn more with each edition. But the core principles of this book endure.

We believe that language — taken broadly — provides the most power- ful means of understanding and shaping the world. We know that argu- ments seldom if ever have only two sides; rather, they present a dizzying array of perspectives. We assume that arguments always come in response to other claims, part of an ongoing conversation that builds throughout our lives. Understanding arguments, then, calls for exercis- ing judgment across a full range of rhetorical situations, perspectives, and media.

For good reason, we give enhanced attention to media this time around. Everything’s an Argument with Readings first appeared just as new technologies were reshaping the ways ideas could be framed and shared; our earliest edition included chapters on “Visual Argument” and “Arguments in Electronic Environments” — which then meant email, newsgroups, and Web sites. Each subsequent edition advanced our game. But with social media now stretching the boundaries of rhetoric, particularly in the arenas of culture and politics, keeping up requires more than just acknowledging change; it means adapting our under- standing of persuasion to these compelling contexts.

To that end, we offer in this seventh edition of Everything’s an Argument with Readings a thoroughly reworked Part 3, “Style and Presentation in Arguments”: its four chapters now outline the rhetorical opportunities students encounter across a wider range of media, both in and out of school. Whether in an updated and augmented section on style or in a


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chapter about “Multimedia Arguments” composed almost from scratch, our readers will find much to challenge their views of audiences, argu- ments, texts, and images. But the advice always remains practical, focused on providing tools writers need, whether they’re polishing an academic essay or evaluating claims trending across social media.

The opening part of Everything’s an Argument with Readings — which introduces core rhetorical principles, including ethos, pathos, and logos — has been more subtly reworked and tightened to make its six chapters even clearer and more readable. Users of this book routinely praise its timely examples of public discourse, and we’ve pushed our- selves to make this opening section especially memorable, illustrating just how pervasive — and occasionally entertaining — arguments can be. Topics covered in the seventh edition include hashtag politics, pick- up trucks, the appeal of fatty foods, and the real reason college alumni donate money to their schools. More often than in past editions, we’ve linked our examples, occasionally even extending connections across chapter boundaries. In other words, we’ve allowed ourselves to have some serious fun.

Part 2 of our text opens with a chapter on “Structuring Arguments” (which now includes more on invitational arguments, in addition to classical, Toulmin, and Rogerian arguments), followed by chapters devoted to the genres that students are often assigned in their college courses. In this section, we have provided many new, timely examples along with new Readings we hope students will find especially engaging. And in recognition of the importance of design when composing in a digital world, each genre chapter’s “Guide to Writing” now has a section devoted to “Considering Format and Media.”

In Part 4, we have increased our coverage of academic arguments (including a new annotated student essay on the effects of depriving young people of direct contact with nature). In addition, we’ve paid care- ful attention to giving advice on how to find useful evidence in online sources (including social media) and how to evaluate sources, using what technology critic Howard Rheingold calls an effective “crap detec- tor.” And in our chapter on “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity,” we have expanded our discussions of fair use as well as of sampling and mash- ups across time (including today). Finally, the chapter on MLA style and APA style has been updated to reflect the most current advice from those organizations and to provide even more examples that can guide stu- dents as they document their sources.

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preface ix

While much new material has been added (or updated), much remains familiar in Everything’s an Argument with Readings, a best seller in its field since its debut. We’re pleased that it seems to strike a chord with students and instructors who expect a book on argument to be can- did, balanced, and attuned to everyday events. Users have also come to expect a stylish and visually striking presentation of issues and con- cepts, rendered in language that is personable and even occasionally personal. We have worked hard, too, to maintain the precision and econ- omy of our most recent edition, knowing that students appreciate books that get to the point.

As in previous editions, we have tried to balance attention to the crit- ical reading of arguments (analysis) with attention to the writing of argu- ments (production), demonstrating both activities with lively — and realistic — examples, on the principle that the best way to appreciate an argument is to see it in action. Texts of every kind beckon for reactions, including a close look at a politician’s kairotic address on the floor of the U.S. Senate, selections from a commencement address by Ruth Simmons at Smith College and by then First Lady Michelle Obama, the photo lead- in to an essay by LeBron James, a selfie that includes Pope Francis, an oral presentation outline sketched by a student, and cartoons, info- graphics, and other visual arguments. The new edition features seven new full-length essays — chosen for their topicality and usefulness as models of argument — on topics ranging from professional gaming to arrests of NFL players to what friendship really means in the era of social media. We have kept the best and most popular materials from previous editions but have also searched for new items — including visual and multimedia ones — that we believe embody the spirit of the times. As always, we want students to page through the book to find the next intriguing argument or to discover one of their own.

After all, our purpose in Everything’s an Argument with Readings is to present persuasion as an essential and instinctual activity — something we do almost from the moment we are born (in fact, an infant’s first cry is as poignant a claim as we can imagine). But we also want writers to think of argumentation as a craft both powerful and professional. So we have designed Everything’s an Argument with Readings to be itself a case for civil persuasion, with a voice that aims to appeal to readers cordially but that doesn’t hesitate to make demands on them when appropriate.

In selecting themes and arguments for the anthology, we’ve tried to choose topics of interest and concern to the students we teach as well as

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issues and texts worth arguing about. We’ve sought readings that will challenge students to consider new perspectives on topics they may feel they already understand and, in particular, to contextualize themselves in a world characterized by increasing globalization and divisive rhetoric on many topics. We have retained several of the chapter topics that have worked especially well in earlier editions — stereotypes in popular cul- ture, sustainability and food, and the possible meanings of diversity on college campuses. In refocusing and revising these chapters, we have sought to find a balance between including texts that students and teachers found provocative, instructive, and useful and adding new ones that treat contemporary issues while leading us to think about argu- mentation in novel, timely ways. For example, how can research analyz- ing the characters in video games help us understand how stereotyping works in our society? How might the meaning of “sustainable food” change, depending on whether we’re focusing on the United States or on developing countries? What challenges do Muslim women on college campuses face, and what does their situation teach us about campus dynamics?

In addition to updating these chapters from the sixth edition, we have added chapters on two new topics: how globalization is affecting language and how technological advances are influencing our under- standing of privacy. In the chapter on the first topic, we encourage stu- dents to begin thinking of themselves as global citizens and to examine the privileges and perhaps the responsibilities that come with speaking English as a first or additional language. The chapter also helps students begin to examine the consequences of the spread of English for some less widely used languages. In many ways, the topics raised in this chap- ter relate to the same questions of sustainability raised in the discus- sions of food. The chapter on the changing meaning of privacy considers two major issues: Big Data and how data are used by industry and gov- ernment, on the one hand, and privacy and cell phones in light of the 2014 Riley v. California Supreme Court ruling, on the other.

In choosing new selections for the anthology, we have first looked for new genres (including multimodal genres) that bring home to stu- dents the message conveyed by the book’s title. Furthermore, we have tried to build upon the emphasis on academic argument in the earlier part of the book. We have searched for examples of research writing that use a range of methodologies, including case studies, quantitative research, and professional reports, with the goal of giving students

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preface xi

practice for analyzing the sorts of arguments they will be assigned in their various courses. The readings in this edition include excerpts from ten books treating a range of topics and written for a variety of audiences. We have also included part of a Supreme Court ruling to help students see stasis theory in action and to help them appreciate the role that such rulings play in all our daily lives. Finally, we have sought arguments, whether written or visual, that will help students see themselves “among others,” to use Clifford Geertz’s memorable turn of phrase.

Here is a summary of the key features that continue to characterize Everything’s an Argument with Readings and of the major new features in this edition.

Key Features

Two books in one, neatly linked. The beginning of the book provides a brief guide to argument; later chapters offer a thematically organized anthol- ogy of readings in a wide range of genres. The two parts of the book are linked by cross-references in the margins, leading students from the argument chapters to specific examples in the readings and from the readings to appropriate rhetorical instruction.

An imaginative and winning approach, going beyond traditional pro/con assumptions to show that argument is everywhere — in essays, tweets, news articles, scholarly writing, speeches, advertisements, cartoons, posters, bumper stickers, debates, Web sites, blogs, text messages, and other electronic environments.

Student-friendly explanations in simple, everyday language, with many brief examples and a minimum of technical terminology.

Fresh and important chapter themes that encourage students to take up

complex positions. Readings on topics such as “How Does Popular Culture Stereotype You?,” “What Should ‘Diversity on Campus’ Mean and Why?,” and “Why Is Sustainability Important When It Comes to Food?” demand that students explore the many sides of an issue, not just pro/con.

A real-world, full-color design, with readings presented in the style of the original publication. Different formats for newspaper articles, maga- zine articles, essays, writing from the Web, radio transcripts, and other

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media help students recognize and think about the effect that design and visuals have on written and multimodal arguments, and the full- color design helps bring the many images in the text to life.

New to This Edition

Two new chapters — on how globalization is changing language and what pri-

vacy means in the digital age — treat issues relevant to students as citizens and

scholars. Although students may not give the topic much conscious thought, globalization is influencing language and languages, including English, in complex ways. And if you mention Riley v. California in class, many students will recognize it as the recent Supreme Court ruling mandating that their cell phones can be searched only by law enforce- ment officials who have first obtained a warrant to do so. Although stu- dents may give a great deal of thought to privacy and technology, they — and all of us — have much to learn on the topic.

Forty-six new selections in the guide and readings chapters draw from a vari-

ety of sources and genres, including student newspaper articles, info- graphics, and media reviews:

● Seven new full-length arguments in the guide — on topics ranging from arrests of NFL players to Google Glass — provide engaging, topi- cal models for specific kinds of arguments.

● The transcript from an NPR radio program examines the standard practice of colleges and universities of overrepresenting students of color in their promotional materials.

● A chapter from Georgetown University law professor Sheryll Cashin’s most recent book, Place, Not Race: A New Vision of Opportunity in Amer- ica, questions the fairness of affirmative action in ways that challenge partisans on both the right and the left ends of the political spectrum.

● An excerpt from Barbara Kingsolver’s Animal, Vegetable, Miracle argues passionately against genetically modified foods, while other selec- tions argue just as passionately for them.

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preface xiii

A heavily revised four-chapter section on “Style and Presentation in Argu-

ments” provides up-to-date advice and commentary on the ways argu- ments are now routinely adapted to different audiences and media. Additions to these chapters include the following:

● A revised chapter on style that shows in more detail precisely how writers shape their words and sentences (even their punctuation) to influence readers. The entries describing particular rhetorical tropes and schemes are now arranged alphabetically for easier reference.

● A chapter on “Presenting Arguments” that has been redesigned to provide a clearer path to effective presentations. It features the actual notes that a student prepared for an oral report.

● A chapter on “Visual Rhetoric” that has been reworked to focus spe- cifically on the rhetorical appeals (pathos, ethos, logos) that photo- graphs, graphic design, typefaces, and even colors can generate.

● A thoughtful yet practical new chapter on “Multimedia Arguments” that examines what happens to arguments and audiences as they move between and among media as old as books and as new as Twitter.

Examples now occasionally work across chapters to reinforce their points more memorably.

A new “Considering Format and Media” section appears in the “Guide to Writing” in each genre chapter.

Get the Most Out of Your Course with Everything’s an Argument with Readings

Bedford/St. Martin’s offers resources and format choices that help you and your students get even more out of your book and course. To learn more about or to order any of the following products, contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative, email sales support (sales _support@bfwpub.com), or visit the Web site at macmillanhighered .com/everythingsanargumentwithreadings/catalog.

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LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings: Where Students Learn

LaunchPad provides engaging content and new ways to get the most out of your course. Get an interactive e-book in a fully customizable course space; then assign and mix our resources with yours.

● LearningCur ve adaptive quizzing offers four new modules on argument.

● Pre-built units — including readings, videos, quizzes, discussion groups, and more — are easy to adapt and assign by adding your own materials and mixing them with our high-quality multimedia con- tent and ready-made assessment options.

● LaunchPad also provides access to a gradebook that gives a clear win- dow on the performance of your whole class, individual students, and even individual assignments.

● A streamlined interface helps students focus on what’s due, and social commenting tools let them engage, make connections, and learn from one another. Use LaunchPad on its own or integrate it with your school’s learning management system so that your class is always on the same page.

To get the most out of your course, order LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings packaged with the print book. (LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings can also be purchased on its own.) An activation code is required. To order LaunchPad for Everything’s an Argument with Readings with the print book, use iSBn 978-1-319-03950-9.

Choose from Alternative Formats of Everything’s an Argument with Readings

Bedford/St. Martin’s offers a range of affordable formats, allowing stu- dents to choose the one that works best for them. For details, visit macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargumentwithreadings/catalog.

● Paperback brief or hardcover high school edition To order the paperback edition of Everything’s an Argument, use iSBn 978-1-4576-9867-5. To order the hardcover high school edition of Everything’s an Argument with Readings, use iSBn 978-1-319-01632-6.

● Popular e-book formats For details, visit macmillanhighered.com/ebooks.

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preface xv

Select Value Packages

Add value to your text by packaging one of the following resources with Everything’s an Argument with Readings. To learn more about pack- age options for any of the following products, contact your Bedford/ St. Martin’s sales representative or visit macmillanhighered.com /everythingsanargumentwithreadings/catalog.

Writer’s Help 2.0 for Lunsford Handbooks offers Andrea Lunsford’s smart advice with Writer’s Help smart search. Writer’s Help is a powerful online handbook with “the simplicity and usability of Google,” according to one student user, but with the instruction that free online resources lack. Its trusted content from Andrea Lunsford helps students whether they are searching for writing advice on their own or working on an assignment. Its tools, built around a smart search that recognizes nonexpert termi- nology, are as simple as they are innovative. Writer’s Help saves teachers time by helping them assign pages and track progress, providing a win- dow into student use and achievement. User-friendly help for college writers also means useful data for instructors and administrators. To order Writer’s Help 2.0 for Lunsford Handbooks packaged with the print book, contact your sales representative for a package ISBN.

i-series This popular series presents multimedia tutorials in a flexible format — because there are things you can’t do in a book.

● ix visualizing composition 2.0 helps students put into practice key rhe- torical and visual concepts. To order ix visualizing composition pack- aged with the print book, contact your sales representative for a package ISBN.

● i-claim: visualizing argument offers a new way to see argument — with six multimedia tutorials, an illustrated glossary, and a wide array of multimedia arguments. To order i-claim: visualizing argument packaged with the print book, contact your sales representative for a package ISBN.

Make Learning Fun with Re:Writing 3


New open online resources with videos and interactive elements engage students in new ways of writing. You’ll find tutorials about

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using common digital writing tools, an interactive peer review game, Extreme Paragraph Makeover, and more — all for free and for fun. Visit bedfordstmartins.com/rewriting.

Instructor Resources


You have a lot to do in your course. Bedford/St. Martin’s wants to make it easy for you to find the support you need — and to get it quickly.

Instructor’s Notes for Everything’s an Argument with Readings is available as a PDF that can be downloaded from the Bedford/St. Martin’s online catalog at the URL above. In addition to chapter overviews and teaching tips, the instructor’s manual includes sample syllabi and possible dis- cussion points for the Respond questions in the book.

Teaching Central offers the entire list of Bedford/St. Martin’s print and online professional resources in one place. You’ll find landmark refer- ence works, sourcebooks on pedagogical issues, award-winning collec- tions, and practical advice for the classroom — all free for instructors. Visit macmillanhighered.com/teachingcentral.

Bits collects creative ideas for teaching a range of composition topics in an easily searchable blog format. In her Teacher to Teacher blog, Andrea Lunsford shares ideas inspired by her teaching, reading, and traveling. Her “Multimodal Mondays” posts offer ideas for introducing low-stakes multi- modal assignments to the composition classroom. A community of teach- ers — leading scholars, authors, and editors — discuss revision, research, grammar and style, technology, peer review, and much more. Take, use, adapt, and pass the ideas around. Then come back to the site to comment or share your own suggestions. Visit community.macmillan.com and fol- low Bedford Bits to see for yourself.


We owe a debt of gratitude to many people for making Everything’s an Argument with Readings possible. Our first thanks must go to the thou- sands of people we have taught in our writing courses over nearly four decades, particularly students at the Ohio State University, Stanford

00_LUN_9864_FM_i-xl.indd 16 8/7/15 9:16 AMhttp://bedfordstmartins.com/rewritinghttp://macmillanhighered.com/everythingsanargumentwithreadings/cataloghttp://macmillanhighered.com/teachingcentralhttp://community.macmillan.com

preface xvii

University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Portland State University. Almost every chapter in this book has been informed by a classroom encounter with a student whose shrewd observation or perceptive question sent an ambitious lesson plan spiraling to the ground. (Anyone who has tried to teach claims and warrants on the fly to skeptical first-year writers will surely appreciate why we have qual- ified our claims in the Toulmin chapter so carefully.) But students have also provided the motive for writing this book. More than ever, they need to know how to read and write arguments effectively if they are to secure a place in a world growing ever smaller and more rhetori- cally challenging.

We are grateful to our editors at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have con- tributed their many talents to our book. With this edition we welcome new editors, Rachel Goldberg and Sherry Mooney, to Everything’s an Argument with Readings. Not only did they bring new ideas to the project and a superb editorial sense (particularly in suggesting what works best where), but they have also been extraordinarily helpful in sorting through the increasingly complicated issue of acquiring first-rate examples and images for the book.

We are similarly grateful to others at Bedford/St. Martin’s who con- tributed their talents to our book: Rosemary Jaffe, senior production edi- tor; Diana Blume, art director; Sheri Blaney, art researcher; Margaret Gorenstein, permissions researcher; Steven Patterson, copy editor; Arthur Johnson and Linda McLatchie, proofreaders; and Jennifer Prince, editorial assistant.

We’d also like to thank the astute instructors who reviewed the sixth edition: Nolan Belk, Wilkes Community College; Hailie Bryant, Appalachian State University; James Bryant-Trerise, Clackamas Community College; Don Carroll, College of DuPage; Matthew Davis, University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point; Josh Herron, Anderson University; Susan Hubbard, University of Central Florida; Calvin Jones, South Piedmont Community College; Jeff Kosse, Iowa Western Community College; Edwin Kroll, Kalamazoo Valley Community College; Charles Poff, Central Virginia Community College; David Rude, Heald College; Timothy Shonk, Eastern Illinois University; Mary Ann Simmons, James Sprunt Community College; James Stokes, University of Wisconsin–Stevens Point; Bobby Vasquez, University of Nebraska; Lorena Williams, Duquesne University; and Stephanie Zerkel-Humbert, Maple Woods Community College.

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Thanks, too, to John Kinkade, who once again has prepared the instructor’s notes for this seventh edition, and to Margo Russell for her invaluable help finding (and in some cases helping transcribe) new read- ing selections. Finally, we are grateful to the students whose fine argu- mentative essays or materials appear in our chapters: George Chidiac, Manasi Deshpande, Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner, Sean Kamperman, Rachel Kolb, Taylor Pearson, and Natasha Rodriguez. We hope that Everything’s an Argument with Readings responds to what students and instructors have said they want and need.

Andrea A. Lunsford

John J. Ruszkiewicz

Keith Walters

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Preface vii

Part 1: Reading and Understanding Arguments 1

1. Everything Is an Argument 3

2. Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos 28

3. Arguments Based on Character: Ethos 40

4. Arguments Based on Facts and Reason: Logos 51

5. Fallacies of Argument 71

6. Rhetorical Analysis 87

Part 2: Writing Arguments 119

7. Structuring Arguments 121

8. Arguments of Fact 151

9. Arguments of Definition 185

10. Evaluations 210

11. Causal Arguments 240

12. Proposals 272


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xx brief CONTeNTS

Part 3: Style and Presentation in Arguments 305

13. Style in Arguments 307

14. Visual Rhetoric 330

15. Presenting Arguments 344

16. Multimedia Arguments 361

Part 4: Research and Arguments 377

17. Academic Arguments 379

18. Finding Evidence 412

19. Evaluating Sources 427

20. Using Sources 436

21. Plagiarism and Academic Integrity 455

22. Documenting Sources 465

Part 5: Arguments 505

23. How Does Popular Culture Stereotype You? 507

24. What’s Globalization Doing to Language? 568

25. Why Is Sustainability Important When It Comes to Food? 600

26. What Should “Diversity on Campus” Mean and Why? 668

27. How Has the Internet Changed the Meaning of Privacy? 732

Glossary 793

Index 804

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Preface vii

Part 1: Reading and Understanding Arguments 1

1. Everything Is an Argument 3 Why We Make Arguments 6

Arguments to Convince and Inform 7

Arguments to Persuade 8

Arguments to Make Decisions 10

Arguments to Understand and Explore 11

Occasions for Argument 12

Arguments about the Past 13

Arguments about the Future 14

Arguments about the Present 14

Kinds of Argument 17

Did Something Happen? Arguments of Fact 17

What Is the Nature of the Thing? Arguments of Definition 18

What Is the Quality or Cause of the Thing? Arguments

of Evaluation 19

What Actions Should Be Taken? Proposal Arguments 20



Part 1 photo: AP Photo/L’Osservatore Romano, Riccardo Aguiari; top to bottom: Pacific Press/Getty Images; © Bob Englehart/Cagle Cartoons, Inc.; Michael N. Todaro/ FilmMagic/Getty Images

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Appealing to Audiences 21

Emotional Appeals: Pathos 23

Ethical Appeals: Ethos 23

Logical Appeals: Logos 24

Bringing It Home: Kairos and the Rhetorical Situation 24


2. Arguments Based on Emotion: Pathos 28 reading Critically for Pathos 29

Using emotions to build bridges 31

Using emotions to Sustain an Argument 34

Using Humor 36

Using Arguments based on emotion 38

3. Arguments Based on Character: Ethos 40 Thinking Critically about Arguments based on Character 42

establishing Trustworthiness and Credibility 43

Claiming Authority 45

Coming Clean about Motives 47


4. Arguments Based on Facts and Reason: Logos 51 Thinking Critically about Hard evidence 52

Facts 55

Statistics 57

Surveys and Polls 60

Testimonies and Narratives 62

Using reason and Common Sense 63


Top to bottom: Used with permission of Gary Varvel and Creators Syndicate. All rights reserved; Kevin C. Cox/Getty Images; AP Photo/L’Osservatore Romano, Riccardo Aguiari; © NBC/Photofest, Inc.

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Providing Logical Structures for Argument 67

Degree 67

Analogies 68

Precedent 69

5. Fallacies of Argument 71 fallacies of emotional Argument 72

Scare Tactics 72

Either/Or Choices 72

Slippery Slope 74

Overly Sentimental Appeals 74

Bandwagon Appeals 75

fallacies of ethical Argument 76

Appeals to False Authority 76

Dogmatism 77

Ad Hominem Arguments 78

Stacking the Deck 79

fallacies of Logical Argument 79

Hasty Generalization 80

Faulty Causality 80

Begging the Question 81

Equivocation 82

Non Sequitur 82

Straw Man 83

Red Herring 84

Faulty Analogy 84

6. Rhetorical Analysis 87 Composing a rhetorical Analysis 89

Understanding the Purpose of Arguments You

Are Analyzing 90

Understanding Who Makes an Argument 91

identifying and Appealing to Audiences 92

Top: © Bish/Cagle Cartoons, Inc.; second from top: Tim Boyle/Getty Images; bottom: Kittipojn Pravalpatkul/Shutterstock

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examining Arguments based on emotion: Pathos 95

examining Arguments based on Character: ethos 97

examining Arguments based on facts and reason: Logos 98

examining the Arrangement and Media of Arguments 101

Looking at Style 102

examining a rhetorical Analysis 105

David brooks, It’s Not about You 106

“This year’s graduates are members of the most supervised

generation in American history.”

rachel Kolb, Understanding Brooks’s Binaries

[student essay] 109 “Instead of relying on the logos of his argument, Brooks

assumes that his position as a baby boomer and New York

Times columnist will provide a sufficient enough ethos to

validate his claims.”


Part 2: Writing Arguments 119

7. Structuring Arguments 121 The Classical Oration 122

rogerian and invitational Arguments 126

Toulmin Argument 130

Making Claims 130

Offering Evidence and Good Reasons 131

Determining Warrants 133

Offering Evidence: Backing 138

Using Qualifiers 140

Part 2 photo: Cal Sport Media via AP Images; top to bottom: © Gary A. Vasquez/USA Today Sports Images; © World History Archive/Alamy; PhotoLink/Getty Images; National Archives

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Understanding Conditions of Rebuttal 141

Outline of a Toulmin Argument 143

A Toulmin Analysis 144

Deborah Tannen, Why Is “Compromise” Now a Dirty Word? 145

“The death of compromise has become a threat to our


What Toulmin Teaches 149


8. Arguments of Fact 151 Understanding Arguments of fact 152

Characterizing factual Arguments 154

Developing a factual Argument 155

Identifying an Issue 157

Researching Your Hypothesis 159

Refining Your Claim 160

Deciding Which Evidence to Use 161

Presenting Your Evidence 163

Considering Design and Visuals 164


Projects 173

Two Sample Factual Arguments 174

Taylor Pearson, Why You Should Fear Your Toaster More Than

Nuclear Power [student essay] 174 “We live in a radioactive world.”

Neil irwin, What the Numbers Show about N.F.L. Player

Arrests 180

“The numbers show a league in which drunk-driving arrests

are a continuing problem and domestic violence charges are

surprisingly common.”

Top to bottom: Alfred Eisenstaedt/Getty Images; USAID; AP Photo/The Philadelphia Inquirer, Tom Gralish, Pool; Frederick M. Brown/Getty Images

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9. Arguments of Definition 185 Understanding Arguments of Definition 186

Kinds of Definition 189

Formal Definitions 189

Operational Definitions 190

Definitions by Example 192

Developing a Definitional Argument 193

Formulating Claims 193

Crafting Definitions 195

Matching Claims to Definitions 196

Considering Design and Visuals 197


Projects 205

Two Sample Definitional Arguments 206

Natasha rodriguez, Who Are You Calling Underprivileged?

[student essay] 206 “The word made me question how I saw myself in the world.”

Joyce Xinran Liu, Friending: The Changing Definition of

Friendship in the Social Media Era 208

“We’ve created the myth of building strong relationships via

social media.”

10. Evaluations 210 Understanding evaluations 211

Criteria of evaluation 212

Characterizing evaluation 214

Quantitative Evaluations 215

Qualitative Evaluations 215

Developing an evaluative Argument 217

Formulating Criteria 218

Making Claims 219

Top to bottom: Bill Wight/Getty Images; Red DaxLuma Gallery/Shutterstock; PHOTOEDIT/PhotoEdit, Inc.; Mario Tama/Getty Images

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Presenting Evidence 221

Considering Design and Visuals 223


Projects 231

Two Sample Evaluations 232

Sean Kamperman, The Wikipedia Game: Boring, Pointless, or

Neither? [student essay] 232 “Knowledge building is a connective or associative process, as

the minds behind Wikipedia well know.”

Hayley Tsukayama, My Awkward Week with Google Glass 237

“Why? Because I’m wearing Google Glass. And I hate it.”

11. Causal Arguments 240 Understanding Causal Arguments 241

Arguments That State a Cause and Then Examine

Its Effects 243

Arguments That State an Effect and Then Trace the Effect

Back to Its Causes 244

Arguments That Move through a Series of Links: A Causes B,

Which Leads to C and Perhaps to D 245

Characterizing Causal Arguments 246

They Are Often Part of Other Arguments. 246

They Are Almost Always Complex. 246

They Are Often Definition Based. 247

They Usually Yield Probable Rather Than Absolute Conclusions. 248

Developing Causal Arguments 248

Exploring Possible Claims 248

Defining the Causal Relationships 250

Supporting Your Point 252

Considering Design and Visuals 255


Projects 263

Top to bottom: Cal Sport Media via AP Images; © Ildi Papp/age fotostock; Robyn Beck/ AFP/Getty Images; © Bill Coster/age fotostock

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xxviii CONTeNTS

Two Sample Causal Arguments 264

raven Jiang, Dota 2: The Face of Professional Gaming

[student essay] 264 “The point is that online gaming is going to be a big deal.”

John Tierney, Can a Playground Be Too Safe? 268

“Fear of litigation led New York City officials to remove

seesaws, merry-go-rounds, and the ropes that young Tarzans

used to swing from one platform to another.”

12. Proposals 272 Understanding and Categorizing Proposals 273

Characterizing Proposals 275

Developing Proposals 279

Defining a Need or Problem 279

Making a Strong and Clear Claim 281

Showing That the Proposal Addresses the Need or Problem 283

Showing That the Proposal Is Feasible 286

Considering Design and Visuals 286


Projects 294

Two Sample Proposals 295

Manasi Deshpande, A Call to Improve Campus Accessibility

[student essay] 295 “The University must make campus accessibility a higher

priority and take more seriously the hardship that the campus

at present imposes on people with mobility impairments.”

Virginia Postrel, Let’s Charge Politicians for Wasting Our

Time 303

“If candidates really think it’s valuable to call me, they should

be willing to pay.”

Top to bottom: © Florian Kopp/agefotostock.com; Ron Sanford/Science Source®/Photo Researchers; © Lucy Nicholson/Reuters/LANDOV; AP Wide World Photos

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Part 3: Style and Presentation in Arguments 305

13. Style in Arguments 307 Style and Word Choice 309

Sentence Structure and Argument 312

Punctuation and Argument 314

Special effects: figurative Language 317

Tropes 318

Schemes 326


14. Visual Rhetoric 330 The Power of Visual Arguments 331

Using Visuals in Your Own Arguments 332

Using Images and Visual Design to Create Pathos 332

Using Images to Establish Ethos 335

Using Visual Images to Support Logos 339

15. Presenting Arguments 344 Class and Public Discussions 345


Preparing a Presentation 346

Assess the Rhetorical Situation 347

Nail Down the Specific Details 350

Fashion a Script Designed to Be Heard by an Audience 351

Choose Media to Fit Your Subject 355

Deliver a Good Show 357

A Note about Webcasts: Live Presentations over the Web 359

Part 3 photo: © Photofest, Inc.; top to bottom: © Photofest, Inc.; Martin Lehmann/ Shutterstock; © Ron Kimball/Kimball Stock; © Photofest, Inc.

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16. Multimedia Arguments 361 Old Media Transformed by New Media 362

New Content in New Media 363

New Audiences in New Media 365

Analyzing Multimedia Arguments 368

Making Multimedia Arguments 371

Web Sites 371

Videos 372

Wikis 372

Blogs 373

Social Media 374

Part 4: Research and Arguments 377

17. Academic Arguments 379 Understanding What Academic Argument is 380

Conventions in Academic Argument Are Not Static. 384

Developing an Academic Argument 385

Two Sample Academic Arguments 396

Charlotte Geaghan-breiner, Where the Wild Things Should

Be: Healing Nature Deficit Disorder through the Schoolyard

[student essay] 396 “The most practical solution to this staggering rift

between children and nature involves the schoolyard.”

Lan Xue, China: The Prizes and Pitfalls of Progress 406

“The global science community has a responsibility

to help those developing countries that do not

have adequate resources to solve problems


Part 4 photo: Mike Nelson/AFP/Getty Images; top to bottom: knape/Getty Images; AP/Invision/Charles Sykes: Mike Nelson/AFP/Getty Images; © Andy Singer/Cagle Cartoons, Inc.

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18. Finding Evidence 412 Considering the rhetorical Situation 412


Using Data and evidence from research Sources 415


Collecting Data on Your Own 419

19. Evaluating Sources 427 Assessing Print Sources 430

Assessing electronic Sources 432

Practicing Crap Detection 432

Assessing field research 434

20. Using Sources 436 Practicing infotention 436

building a Critical Mass 437

Synthesizing information 438

Paraphrasing Sources You Will Use Extensively 439

Summarizing Sources 442

Using Quotations Selectively and Strategically 443

Framing Materials You Borrow with Signal Words and

Introductions 445

Using Sources to Clarify and Support Your Own Argument 447

Avoiding “Patchwriting” 451

21. Plagiarism and Academic Integrity 455 Giving Credit 458

Getting Permission for and Using Copyrighted internet Sources 459

Acknowledging Your Sources Accurately and Appropriately 461

Acknowledging Collaboration 462

Top to bottom: © Zoonar M Kang/age fotostock; © Bartomeu Amengual/age fotostock; © imageBROKER/age fotostock; © imagineasia/age fotostock

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xxxii CONTeNTS

22. Documenting Sources 465 MLA Style 467

In-Text Citations 467

Explanatory and Bibliographic Notes 471

List of Works Cited 472

Sample First Page for an Essay in MLA Style 485

Sample List of Works Cited for an Essay in MLA Style 486

APA Style 487

In-Text Citations 487

Content Notes 490

List of References 490

Sample Title Page for an Essay in APA Style 500

Sample First Text Page for an Essay in APA Style 501

Sample References List for an Essay in APA Style 502

Part 5: Arguments 505

23. How Does Popular Culture Stereotype You? 507 Stephanie Hanes, Little Girls or Little Women? The Disney Princess

Effect [newspaper article] 509 “She came to believe that the $4 billion Disney Princess empire

was the first step down a path to scarier challenges, from self-

objectification to cyberbullying to unhealthy body images.”

Making a Visual Argument: Cartoons and Stereotypes [cartoons] 517

Steve Kelley, New Barbie 517

Adam Zyglis, Your Generation’s Sickening 518

Harley Schwadron, The Anti–Gun Control Lobby 518

Part 5 photo: Christian Charisius/picture-alliance/dpa/AP Images; top to bottom: Seregram/Shutterstock; B. Deutsch, leftycartoons.com; Everett Collection; Jeff Siner/ Charlotte Observer/MCT/Getty Images

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CONTeNTS xxxiii

Barry Deutsch, Really Good Careers 519

Clay Bennett, Hands Up 519

John Deering, Community Relationship Officer 520

Amy Stretten, Appropriating Native American Imagery Honors No One

but the Prejudice [web article] 522 “How does celebrating Native people with war imagery honor a

living people?”

Charles A. riley ii, Disability and the Media: Prescriptions for Change [book excerpt] 527

“People working in the media exert a powerful influence over the

way people with disabilities are perceived.”

Claude M. Steele, An Introduction: At the Root of Identity, from

Whistling Vivaldi and Other Clues to How Stereotypes Affect Us [book excerpt] 537

“Whenever we’re in a situation where a bad stereotype about one

of our own identities could be applied to us — such as those about

being old, poor, rich, or female — we know it.”

Melinda C. r. burgess et al., Playing with Prejudice: The Prevalence

and Consequences of Racial Stereotypes in Video Games [journal article] 551

“Imagery that associates African American men with the negative

stereotypes of aggression, hostility, and criminality conditions

viewers to associate this constellation of negativity with African

American men in general.”

Amy Zimmerman, It Ain’t Easy Being Bisexual on TV [web article] 561

“Unfortunately, the television and film industries aren’t going out of

their way to showcase bisexual role models.”

Top to bottom: Melanie Stetson Freeman/© 2011 The Christian Science Monitor (www .CSMonitor.com). Reprinted with permission; Eugene Gologursky/Wire Image/Getty Images; Civico Museo Bibliografico Musicale, Bologna, Italy/Alinari/Bridgeman Images; The Kobal Collection at Art Resource, NY

00_LUN_9864_FM_i-xl.indd 33 8/7/15 9:17 AMhttp://www.CSMonitor.com


24. What’s Globalization Doing to Language? 568 Lebanon Daily News, Coca-Cola’s Multilingual “America” Ad Didn’t

Hit Any Wrong Notes [editorial] 570 “We can be just as patriotic, and we can act just as freely, if we sing

those words in English or in any [other] languages.”

Kirk Semple, Immigrants Who Speak Indigenous Languages Encounter

Isolation [newspaper article] 573 “For many, not knowing Spanish is as big an impediment as not

knowing English.”

Scott L. Montgomery, Chapter 4: Impacts: A Discussion of Limitations

and Issues for a Global Language, from Does Science Need a Global

Language? English and the Future of Research [book excerpt] 577 “The greatest long-term danger coming from the global spread of

English — could it be to its own native speakers?”

Making a Visual Argument: Santos Henarejos, Speak My Language [infographic] 585

Nicholas Ostler, Is It Globalization That Endangers Languages? [conference report] 589

“Not all languages have the same value to their speakers.”

rose eveleth, Saving Languages through Korean Soap Operas [web article] 596

“Not only the content travels, but the language, the nuance, the

culture is suddenly crossing borders.”

25. Why Is Sustainability Important When It Comes to Food? 600

Christian r. Weisser, Sustainability, from Sustainability: A Bedford

Spotlight Reader [book excerpt] 602 “Sustainability must consider the environment, society, and the

economy to be successful.”

Top to bottom: Makeshift Magazine (mkshft.org); © Frank Fell/age fotostock; AP Photo/ John McConnico; AP Photo/Journal Inquirer, Jared Ramsdell

00_LUN_9864_FM_i-xl.indd 34 8/7/15 9:17 AMhttp://mkshft.org


robert Paarlberg, Attention Whole Foods Shoppers [magazine article] 610

“It turns out that food prices on the world market tell us very little

about global hunger.”

barbara Kingsolver and Steven L. Hopp, Springing Forward and The

Strange Case of Percy Schmeiser, from Animal, Vegetable, Miracle [book excerpt] 620

“How did supermarket vegetables lose their palatability, with so

many people right there watching?”

David H. freedman, Are Engineered Foods Evil? [magazine article] 630

“Despite overwhelming evidence that GM crops are safe to eat, the

debate over their use continues to rage, and in some parts of the

world, it is growing ever louder.”

Making a Visual Argument: Claire Ironside, Apples to Oranges [visual essay] 641

eric Mortenson, A Diversified Farm Prospers in Oregon’s Willamette

Valley by Going Organic and Staying Local [newspaper article] 653 “If you’re not fine-tuning, you’re out of business.”

Katherine Gustafson, School Bus Farmers’ Market, from Change

Comes to Dinner [book excerpt] 657 “Is relocalizing our food economy the answer to our woes?”

26. What Should “Diversity on Campus” Mean and Why? 668

Making a Visual Argument: Diversity Posters [posters] 670

Wendy Aguilar, Talk About It, Be About It 670

Max Smith, Unity within the Community 671

Hayley Kuntz, We All Come from Different Walks of Life 672

David Whittemore, Diversity Is the Largest Picture 673

Top to bottom: AP Photo/The Philadelphia Inquirer, Clem Murray; © Claire Ironside, all rights reserved; AP Photo/The Herald-Palladium, John Madill; Megan Haaga, for Open Gates, by permission

Fossil fuel inputs of a local, organic apple

organic local farming

commercial preparation/storage

bulk packaging

retail storage/ maintaining


preparation/ manufacturing

home storage/ cooking

204 foood

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Dr. Lynda Kenney, Diversity Makes Life Interesting 674

Jake Nicolella, Reflect on Yesterday. Experience Today. Transform

Tomorrow. 675

Coleman Collins, You Are Not Colorblind 676

Deena Prichep, A Campus More Colorful Than Reality: Beware That

College Brochure [radio transcript] 678 “Diversity is something that’s being marketed.”

Sarah fraas, Trans Women at Smith: The Complexities of Checking

“Female” [student newspaper article] 683 “Education is the only chance at survival while living as trans.”

Young M. Kim and James S. Cole, Student Veterans/Service Members’

Engagement in College and University Life and Education [research report excerpt] 688

“How do student veterans/service members perceive their

experiences at higher education institutions?”

Shabana Mir, Muslim American Women in Campus Culture, from

Muslim American Women on Campus: Undergraduate Social Life and

Identity [book excerpt] 702 “Muslim American women regularly experience such identity

silencing demands on campus.”

Sheryll Cashin, Introduction from Place, Not Race: A New Vision of

Opportunity in America [book excerpt] 712 “I challenge universities to reform both affirmative action and the

entire admissions process.”

Walter benn Michaels, The Trouble with Diversity: How We Learned

to Love Identity and Ignore Inequality [book excerpt] 725 “We like to talk about the differences we can appreciate, and we

don’t like to talk about the ones we can’t.”

Top to bottom: © Jake Nicolella for Penn State University; © Jim West/Photoshot; A. S. Alexander Collection of Ernest Hemingway. Department of Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library; AP Photo/The Miami Herald/Marsha Halper

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CONTeNTS xxxvii

27. How Has the Internet Changed the Meaning of Privacy? 732

Daniel J. Solove, The Nothing-to-Hide Argument [book excerpt] 734 “The problem with the nothing-to-hide argument is the underlying

assumption that privacy is about hiding bad things.”

rebecca Greenfield, What Your Email Metadata Told the NSA about

You [web article] 746 “But how much could the NSA learn from all that email metadata,


Making a Visual Argument: The Issue of Privacy [cartoons] 751

Nick Anderson, Thanks to the Supreme Court, . . . 751

Alfredo Martirena, 1 Message Reviewed by NSA 752

Larry Lambert, Should I just hit “reply to all” . . . ? 752

danah boyd and Kate Crawford, Excerpt from Six Provocations for

Big Data [conference presentation] 754 “The era of Big Data has begun.”

Todd Zwillich and Christian rudder, It’s Not OK Cupid: Co-Founder

Defends User Experiments [radio interview] 763 “And look, if there’s kind of a public-facing part of what we did, it’s

to point out to every person that uses the Internet, that every site

does these experiments.”

Supreme Court of the United States, Riley v. California [supreme court ruling] 771

“These two cases raise a common question: whether the police may,

without a warrant, search digital information on a cell phone seized

from an individual who has been arrested.”

Amy Davidson, Four Ways the Riley Ruling Matters for the NSA [web article] 786

“New technology doesn’t mean that law enforcement gets a bonanza.”

Glossary 793

Index 804 Top to bottom: AP Photo, 1943; AP Photo; AP Photo/Kin Cheung; AP Photo/Pablo Martinez Monsivais

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Arguments Argument

argument argumentsWRiTing



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Left: Pacific Press/Getty Images; right: © Akintunde Akinleye/Corbis

Everything Is an Argument 1

On May 7, 2014, First Lady of the United States Michelle Obama turned to new media to express her concern over the kidnapping of more than 200 young Nigerian girls by the terrorist group Boko Haram. Her tweet, along with an accompanying photo highlighting the trending hashtag #BringBackOurGirls, ramped up an argument over what the interna- tional community could do to stop an organization responsible for thou- sands of deaths in northeastern Nigeria. In bringing her appeal to Twitter, the First Lady acknowledged the persuasive power of social media like Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, and innumerable political and social blogs. The hashtag itself, it would appear, had become a potent tool for rallying audiences around the globe to support specific ideas or causes. But to what ends?

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Just weeks before Obama’s notable appeal, a U.S. State Department spokesperson Jen Psaki drew attention with a tweet of her own aimed at countering attempts by Russian social media to co-opt the U.S. State Department’s #UnitedforUkraine hashtag:

The Russian government, it seems, having just annexed the Crimea region and threatening all of Ukraine, was showing more skill than Western nations at using Twitter and other social media to win propa- ganda points in the diplomatic crisis. Yet Psaki’s response via Twitter earned her disapproval from those who interpreted her social media riposte as further evidence of U.S. weakness. For instance, Texas senator Ted Cruz tweeted in reply to Psaki:

Even Michelle Obama took heat for her earnest appeal on behalf of kidnapped girls the same age as her own daughters. While celebrities such as Amy Poehler and Mary J. Blige posted supportive items, Obama’s tweet got quick international pushback from those who argued (in 140 characters) that the anti-terrorist use of drones by the U.S. military was no less reprehensible than the tactics of Boko Haram. And domestic crit- ics saw Obama’s message as a substitute for real action, with columnist Jeffrey Goldberg chiding well-intentioned activists with a dose of reality:

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C h a p t e r 1 EvErything is an argumEnt 5

Clearly, social media play out on crowded, two-way channels, with claims and counterclaims whizzing by, fast and furious. Such tools reach audiences and they also create them, offering an innovative way to make and share arguments. Just as important, anyone, anywhere, with access to a phone, tablet, or other electronic device, can launch arguments that circle the globe in seconds. Social networking and digital tools are increasingly available to all.

We’ve opened this chapter with dramatic, perhaps troubling, examples of Twitter controversies to introduce our claim that argu- ments are all around us, in every medium, in every genre, in everything we do. There may be an argument on the T-shirt you put on in the morning, in the sports column you read on the bus, in the prayers you utter before an exam, in the off-the-cuff political remarks of a teacher lecturing, in the assurances of a health center nurse that “This won’t hurt one bit.”

The clothes you wear, the foods you eat, and the groups you join make nuanced, sometimes unspoken assertions about who you are and what you value. So an argument can be any text — written, spoken, aural, or visual — that expresses a point of view. In fact, some theorists claim that language is inherently persuasive. When you say, “Hi, how’s it going?” in one sense you’re arguing that your hello deserves a response. Even humor makes an argument when it causes readers to recognize — through bursts of laughter or just a faint smile — how things are and how they might be different.

More obvious as arguments are those that make direct claims based on or drawn from evidence. Such writing often moves readers to recog- nize problems and to consider solutions. Persuasion of this kind is usu- ally easy to recognize:

The National Minimum Drinking Age Act, passed by Congress 30 years ago this July, is a gross violation of civil liberties and must be repealed. It is absurd and unjust that young Americans can vote, marry, enter contracts, and serve in the military at 18 but cannot buy an alcoholic drink in a bar or restaurant.

— Camille Paglia, “The Drinking Age Is Past Its Prime”

We will become a society of a million pictures without much memory, a society that looks forward every second to an immediate replication of what it has just done, but one that does not sustain the difficult labor of transmitting culture from one generation to the next.

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